Syphilis

Syphilis

Syphilis— An infectious disease transmitted through sexual contact. Sick equally men and women, mostly of reproductive age.

There are several theories as to where it came from this disease: many people blamed its extension to foreigners, and blames America, Europe, and America — Europe. The causative agent of disease — a movable micro-organism from the squad spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Such a title she won because of the fact that conventional dyes for bacteria hardly stained her thin spiral body.

Modes of transmission

This microbe — sissy he feels comfortable only in the body, and it quickly dies out, not withstanding drying and temperature changes. Therefore, syphilis infection can only occur when the direct (usually sexual) contact with the ill person. Thus, the risk factor is promiscuous.

In addition, syphilis can be transmitted during pregnancy from mother to child, so also is a risk factor for infection in the mother. This is called vertical transmission.

There is also a domestic route of transmission of syphilis, when the pathogen enters the body through contaminated hands or objects. However, infection in this way is rare.

What if this happens?

Through 3-4 week there, where infiltrated agent, produced a chancre — a painless bright red ulcer with a thick base.

After a while, it will heal, but it does not mean that the disease has receded — on the contrary, at this time TPHA actively breeding and travels through the body, using the lymphatic vessels. The patient may feel malaise, headache, fever, but usually this period almost no symptoms.

Later, the disease manifests itself rash on the skin, sores on the palms, soles, and mucous membranes. If disease left untreated, it can last for many years, flaring up from time to time: a rash appear and disappear without a trace, and the person feels a little healthier.

The quiet period as the distance from the onset of the disease are getting longer. A person who is unfamiliar with the peculiarities of syphilis, it may even be a feeling that he is recovering: it feels something he himself is normal! But this seeming prosperity: agents have infiltrated into all the organs and tissues and can affect the nervous system, liver.

If the patient is not treated or treatment conducted from time to time, the disease is delayed and over three or four , the body is covered with sores affecting the deeper layers of the skin. Slowly break down internal organs, cartilage, bones and nervous system. Most often suffer heart (until the development of defect), and the vessels, the most vulnerable point is — the aorta. Its wall is inflamed, the calcium is deposited on it. The person feels chest pain, shortness of breath torments him.

When treatment is started at this stage, the pathological process can be stopped, although restore the affected organs will not succeed.

In addition, syphilis can get unborn child. Treponema pallidum crosses the placenta and infect the sick mother the fetus. Most often, this leads to an abortion at a late stage of pregnancy, usually between six and seven months. Sometimes the child is born dead, but perhaps the birth of a viable baby with congenital syphilis. It can be saved, but this requires careful examination and treatment in a specialized hospital.

Diagnosis and treatment

If you suspect asyphilis Must go to a dermatologist. Only he can say for sure you are healthy or sick, and correctly prescribe treatment. In the case of syphilis diagnosis challenging its diverse manifestations, also often develop the disease is non-trivial. And the seriousness of the disease requires mandatory laboratory tests.

The most reliable of them — highlight treponemu, but this is possible if there are areas of the body surface affected by erosion. All other methods are based on the study of blood.

Upon infection, it appears the specific antibodies — proteins produced by the body to fight the pathogen. Such antibodies determines Wasserman (RW). Blood for it is taken from a vein. The results of this reaction are quite reliable, but if a person has been infected recently, required for a positive outcome of antibodies has not yet formed. Reliable results can be obtained only two weeks after the appearance of the chancre.

More rapid response system gives rapid diagnosis, based on more sensitive reaction microprecipitation. However, it reacts not only to pale treponemu, but also other microorganisms similar to it. Nevertheless, a positive rapid response plus suspicious symptoms will begin as early treatment.

More sensitive RIBT-response (Reaction immobilization pale treponem) andRIF-response (Immunofluorescence). But for them the necessary reagents and equipment are more expensive and are typically used in special cases.

Syphilis is impossible to reflect in advance — there is no vaccine against this disease, no other methods of active prevention. So come to the fore compliance with the rules of safe sex, the rejection of random connections, and in the extreme case — Emergency prophylaxis following such links.

Keep in mind that:

  • Condom use reduces the risk of syphilis, but not fully insure against it.
  • In contrast to many other infectious diseases, syphilis does not create a strong immunity, and can be infected again.
  • During pregnancy, it is better to visit the antenatal clinic in the early stages. Two mandatory blood Wasserman (in the first and in the second half of pregnancy) to best protect the unborn child.
  • The earlier the diagnosis and treatment is started, the more effective it will be and the less will take.

Everyone who was treated for syphilis, you need medical check-up.

Syphilis — one of the few diseases that can cure with 100% success. For half a century TPHA has not lost its sensitivity to penicillin, which is the drug of choice for syphilis.

There are various schemes of treatment of syphilis, but do not trust doctors or clinics that promise "a full recovery after a single injection." Generally, even the reduced circuit includes at least 2-3 injections of drugs, and treatment should always be accompanied by a laboratory control.

The farther gone disease, the longer should be treated. In many cases, must be carried out in parallel treatment of opportunistic diseases, and sometimes a whole bunch of genital infections, which are often at risk of the disease.

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