What is it?
Vasculitis — a group of systemic disease that is characterized by inflammation of the lining of blood vessels. Currently out several types of vasculitis. The main ones are:
- periarteritis nodosa (segmental arterial disease of small and medium caliber);
- Wegener's granulomatosis (when the disease affects the blood vessels to beginning the upper respiratory tract and lungs, kidneys and blood vessels and then);
- Giant cell temporal arteritis (inflammation large vessels, mainly the head);
- aortoarteriit nonspecific, or disease Takayasu (inflammation of the large arteries and aorta);
- thromboangiitis obliterans (the defeat of the arteries and veins of the muscle-type);
- Behcet's syndrome (vasculitis in which there are three specific changes: stomatitis [inflammation of the gums], changes in the mucous membranes of the genital and inflammation of the eye).
The immediate cause of vasculitis is not clear. It is known that this is due to abnormalities in the immune system.
What's going on?
With all the different vasculitis affects blood vessels, which leads to disruption of blood supply to organs and systems and their further changes. Each of the species vasculitis has its own characteristics.
- Periarteritis nodosa. The disease develops mainly in men. In patients with aching muscles, fever, decreased body weight. Can suddenly appear severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The disease threatens to stroke and mental disorders.
- Wegener's granuloma. The disease is characterized by: pain in the paranasal sinuses, purulent or bloody discharge from the nose, sores in the lining of the nose, the destruction of the nasal septum, and (in this connection), saddle nose deformity. In addition, there are other serious problems: the lungs — cough, coughing up blood, shortness of breath and chest pain, kidney — the rapid development of renal failure.
- Giant cell temporal arteritis. It affects the elderly (
60-80years). The disease is characterized by: an undulating fever, fatigue, malaise, weight loss, severe throbbing headaches, aggravated by chewing, swelling in the temporal region.
- Nonspecific aortoarteriit. Patients complain of numbness and pain in the limbs, pain in the back, stomach and etc, fainting, and visual disturbances.
- Thromboangiitis obliterans. His symptoms depend on the affected vessels. Mainly affected limb vessels, which leads to the development of lameness and numbness in the hands.
- Behcet's syndrome. Its most important feature — recurrent stomatitis. The second most frequent symptom — ulcers of the scrotum and penis in men, vagina, and vulva in women. Also developing a variety of eye inflammation.
Diagnosis and treatment
When you see the above symptoms should contact a rheumatologist. Patients prescribed blood count, urinalysis clinical, angiography (research vessels), chest X-rays.
Treatment depends on the type of vasculitis. With mostly prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants (immunosuppressive) drugs and improve blood flow in the vessels. Other aspects of the management of patients with vasculitis associated with attraction for their treatment of different specialists. The development of complications of these diseases usually requires concerted action by internists, nephrologists, otolaryngologists, neurologists, surgeons, ophthalmologists, etc. In these situations, a common approach is particularly important to the treatment of vasculitis.