Undercover forgotten victories. The energy of triumph
From 1975-1977. in the process of creating rockets super-heavy "Energy" and the middle class, "Zenith" has conducted studies on crotch rocket (heavy) class capacity of 30-60 tons
The original one such rocket was the carrier rocket "Thunderstorm" (RLA-125) consisting of a CPU and 2-side blocks from the carrier rocket "Energy. "In 1976, it created a technical proposal for RN" Thunderstorm ", and in 1977 — to complement it.
In 1985, in accordance with the Decree of 25 December 1984, was released preliminary design, showing the possibility of creating a fundamentally on the industrial and technological base of the carrier rocket "Energy" booster heavy class "Thunderstorm" payload in low orbit to 63 t
By decision of the NTS Minobschemasha from August 18, 1988, "Energia" has been entrusted to clarify the conceptual design for the booster "Thunderstorm" (RLA-125) with the launch gallakticheskih vehicles in the interests of science, the economy and the Ministry of Defence weight of 25 tons up to 40 tons into low orbit.
In 1989 he was released addition to the conceptual design rocket "Thunderstorm", in which proposed to use the central unit not four engines RD-0120, and two with an appropriate reduction in the size of the central unit, have also been considered variants of the launch vehicle payload of 27 m to 50 m, including the introduction of reusable winged stage unit 1.
Follow-up study on the booster heavy class culminated in the 1990 release of preliminary design rocket, which received a conditional name "neutron" (order of the General Designer of December 28, 1989), which was approved by the Principal Designers July 19, 1990
Booster received an official title "Energy-M." In the same year was made and installed on the launch pad full-size mock missile.
April 8, 1991 the Resolution on the development of a competitive basis booster heavy class. The competition was part of "Energia", NGO "Southern" (S.N.Konyuhov) and CB "Salute" D.A.Poluhin). July 6, 1991 Board and the Bureau of NTS Minobschemasha agreed on the need for the creation and launch the heavy class "Energy-M."
Development of the initial data and technical specifications for the components of the rocket "Energy-M" began in the same 1991
From 1991 to 1993. developed design documentation and prepares for the creation of the booster. In 1993, the negotiation was completed and released in the tactical and technical requirements for the development of rocket "Energy-M", approved by the Director General of the RCA Yu.N.Koptevym and coordinated with the commander of the Defense Ministry V.L.Ivanovym videoconferencing.
The two-stage rocket "Energy-M" is the base for the three-stage versions, differing types used by boosters.
Booster is made by a batch scheme with a parallel arrangement of steps, in which two missile oxygen-hydrocarbon blocks one step, taken with the launch of "Energia", are placed around a central oxygen-hydrogen unit 2 stage, developed on the basis of the same unit booster "Energy".
On the center unit installed one RD-0120 engine, which runs the world ahead of relatively engines RD-170 stage 1.
A pack of missile units installed on the start-docking block (block I), taken from the carrier rocket "Energy", which serves to provide power, pneumatic, hydraulic and electronic communications carrier rocket with a launcher in preparation for the launch and being a support member in the assembly, transportation and installation of the launch vehicle, the release installation.
The desired load is located in the cargo compartment of the unit 2 stage and mechanically connected to either the transfer compartment (in a two-stage version) or with the upper stage (in a three-stage version).
Control and stabilization of the launch vehicle during the boost phase of flight departure implemented through a system of thrust vector control actuators engines stages 1 and 2 in the 2-planes, with all this going on at one stage rocking a 2-planes of the four combustion chambers each motor on stage 2 — swing motor and a 2-planes, and to control the slope of the slope used special units running on gas is withdrawn from the two-stage propulsion system.
The proposed assembly rocket "Energy-M" in contrast to all existing missile anticipates mount side blocks in the upper zone of ties to the cargo bay of the central unit, which allows for reducing the length of the rocket to lower the load on the side of the modular units to the level of stress for the rocket carrier "Energia", abandon the special support devices (simulators, 2-side blocks) also increment payload mass due to separation of the upper zone of security ties with the cargo compartment.
Booster "Energy-M" was created with the highest borrowing units, systems and components that have passed the pilot and ground tests in the launch vehicle "Zenit" and "Energy", including the introduction of high-energy fuel — hydrogen watery, and its operation is provided with start- construction and maintenance of the complex rocket "Energy".
The introduction of the real part of the carrier rocket "Energy" to rocket "Energy-M" will claim 5-6 times the lowest cost than creation latest environmentally nezapyatannoy booster such as carrying capacity.
Comparison of the features of the carrier rocket "Energy-M" and zabugornyh rockets indicates that the size and power capabilities booster "Energy-M" is at the level o
f a massive rocket "Ariane-5" and "Titan 4" surpassing them on weight and dimensions of payload that its specific properties are at the best features zabugornyh launchers that it is environmentally harmless system compared with zabugornom boosters because it does not use any highly flammable component or solid-fuel engines and that the estimated price will be lower than its launch price zabugornyh launch rockets.
Commissioning of the rocket "Energy-M" justified the stable domain of its implementation, based existing trends gallakticheskih devices.
Analysis of the research programs of national economic and gallakticheskoy activities and tasks of the Ministry of Defence from 1992 to 2005., Damn those involved in the program notes spacecraft also features zabugornyh spacecraft indicates the trend of growth of their masses and dimensions. Thus, by 2005 SC mass can increase up to 6 tons in geostationary and up to 23 tons in highly elliptical orbits. Derivation of the spacecraft with the increased weight and provided the launch vehicle "Energy-M."
The analysis developed in the current time needed goods indicates that among them there are also characterized by the inability to creation of dense assemblies under the fairing of the launch vehicle during ascent. This is the first payloads designed for the creation of large structures in space, spacecraft connected with several spatially separated antennas or satellites with single bolshennymi antennas. Rocket-carrier "Energy-M" having larger dimensions and a payload area, respectively, fairing, also provides the necessary clearance of cargoes.
At the current time is widely used group of SC, which is implemented on Russian launch vehicles "Cyclone" and "Cosmos" on zabugornyh rocket "Ariane-4" and "Titan-3" and is scheduled for launch vehicles, "Ariane-5 "H-2," The stately march-3A ", also on the launch vehicle," Energy-M. " Such a method of elimination reduces the price of SC due to the substitution of several launches of rockets least one launch rocket greater carrying capacity makes it more suitable conditions for national economic activity in the areas of exclusion by reducing the multiplicity and the total duration of administration in these areas limitations associated with the launching of also expands the scope of the implementation of carrier rockets, making them more competitive in the market launch vehicles.
The implementation of the development of rocket "Energy-M" will allow to provide a solution motivated tasks in the interests of the national economy, science and defense (breeding heavy satellite communication systems, modules gallakticheskih stations, etc.), to perform in the not to distant future substitution of the carrier rocket "Proton" by highly toxic components of fuel, the introduction of which leads to the exclusion of national economic turnover of alienated lands and represents a huge potential environmental hazard in the event of tragedy launch vehicle, and in the process of transportation and storage of fuel components, also keep in working order made complex rocket "Energy. "
Being the only one in its class launch vehicle that uses environmentally unblemished components of fuel and having a relatively low starting price, rocket-carrier "Energy-M" will have a higher competitiveness in the international market as compared to the existing and evolving zabugornom boosters "Titan-4" (USA), "Ariane 5" (ESA), the "H-2" (Japan) and etc.
The future development of the carrier rocket "Energy-M" may be in the direction of its use for removing small multipurpose orbiter created for transportation and technological work in servicing space stations, as part of its introduction into reusable blocks of stage 1, returned to the starting point that eliminates the need for land acquisition for the areas where they fall.
Unfortunately, in 1995 the pace of work on the creation of rocket fell sharply. Funding for the work was suspended.