January 29, 2012 17:02
The sacred city of Mecca — located about seventy miles from the coast of the Red Sea, in the mountainous border of Hijaz and sultry Tihama. Mecca area is extremely dry and quite unsuitable for agriculture. However, the source of fresh water — Zamzam and the location on the trade routes made it an attractive place to settle.
According to Arab tradition, the appearance in these desolate places abundant water source must wonder, created by God for the sake of our forefather Abraham and his son Ishmael, the legendary founder of severoarabskih tribes.
On his return from Egypt Abraham in Palestine his wife Sarah, who was barren, not hoping to have children, offered to marry his slave Hagar to Abraham, given her an Egyptian pharaoh. Hagar gave birth to Ishmael soon, became proud and began to despise Sarah. When an elderly Sarah gave birth to Isaac, God's will, to hostility mothers soon joined quarrel sons. Sarah complained bitterly and demanded Abraham banish Hagar with her son. Ibrahim, who liked very Ismail, it was difficult to decide on this, but God told him to submit to the demands of Sarah, and he took Hajar Ismail to Arabia, to God himself specified place and left them there. Soon the water supply had run out. Hajjar tossed in vain for the source or well (according to legend, it is the prototype for ¬ one of the Meccan pilgrimage rites — sai) — no trace of water was not much of barren hills and hot rocks, and agonizing death from thirst seemed imminent. Desperate, Hagar went away to some distance from Ishmael, not to see his dying pain, relieve that it was weak, and she had left Ishmael cried and started hitting his foot on the ground. And — oh, miracle! — This place has scored a source of fresh water! Hajar, rushed to her son (she thought Ismail attacked by wild animals), I saw that they were saved — she watered Ismail and drunk by myself, and a wonderful source of the fence of earth and stones for fear of losing the water. Such is the legend of the origin of Zamzam.
Hagar and Ishmael soon met with tribes dzhurhumitov who came to this place from Yemen with herds of sheep and camels in search of water, and joined them.
What was the fate of the Hajar — legends silent. We only know that when she died, and Ishmael buried her near the place where the famous temple of the Kaaba. When and who built the Kaaba — not known. We only know that the Kaaba was a sacred place for the people of Arabia long before the rise of Islam.
According to legend (which finds another 200 years before Muhammad), after the death of Abraham Hagar was a long time, sometimes several years, stay near Mecca. In one of his visits (at the behest of Allah) and the temple was built the Kaaba on the spot near Zamzam, where once stood the Temple of Adam — the first church in the world.
According to legend, this place was described angel Jibril (Angel Gabriel) who helped Ibrahim and Ismail in the construction and explain how to be a church with God. From him, apparently, Ibrahim and Ismail learned that the temple they are building — a replica of the temple in which he prayed Adam.
According to the Arabian legend of Adam and Hawwa (Eve) were not only expelled from paradise, but separated, Adam came to the island of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and Hawwa, on the Red Sea near Mecca — in the places where the current port Jeddah. (By the way, on the outskirts of Jeddah, and now show a grave foremothers Havva.) They met only two hundred years — just in Mecca, Mount Arafat, where they first come to know each other after such a long absence, revered by Muslims as one of the shrines. But Adam is suffering from the fact that the lost church, which used to pray in heaven. In the end, God have mercy, and a copy of the temple was lowered to the ground. On the death of Adam this miraculous temple was swept back into the sky. After that the Kaaba was built Seth (son of Adam), Nuh (Noah) and his son Shem, and restore it after the flood.
Kaaba ("House of God") is a cubic stone structure forms the base of which is 10 meters by 12 meters, and the height is 15 meters (Incidentally, the word "Kaaba" is the word "cube".) Viewing Kaaba oriented to the light. Kaaba is covered by a black silk cloth, which bears the name kisva. The veil is changed once a year. The upper part is decorated with gold-embroidered veil sayings from the Koran. Sayings from the Koran adorn the cover closes the door to the Kaaba. This door, by the way, is made of pure gold and weighs 286 kg.
According to legend, in order to facilitate the construction of the Kaaba, the angel Gabriel brought Ibrahim flat stone, which could be in the air and serve as scaffolding. This stone — Maqam Ibrahim (Ibrahim place standing, in Russian). Located a few meters from the Kaaba and the faithful clearly see it footprints of his forefather.
When the temple was almost ready, Abraham needed a noticeable stone to mark the spot on the wall, from which to begin the ritual treatment of the Kaaba. The fact is that in heaven the angels and Adam, taught by God, made sevenfold treatment around the temple, and Ibrahim wanted to, and worship on earth was happening correctly. This is where the angel Gabriel, and brought him to the famous Black Stone, which was built into the northeast corner of the building — this stone was originally dazzling whiteness, but then quickly turned black from touching sinners.
Kaaba Black Stone (al-Hajar al-Esvad as Muslims call it) — according to legend fell from the sky during the time of Adam — according to one version, it was the guardian angel of Adam, turned to stone after he made his fall from grace ward. Scientists also believe the Kaaba black stone meteorite, although there are other points of view. (It can not be the iron meteorite based on its cracks or stony meteorite, since it does not withstand movement and floats in water. Similar arguments and refute nemeteoritnuyu nature of the stone, such as basalt or agate).
Pilgrims try to kiss the Black Stone, and if this is not possible, then at least touch it. It is interesting to note that in 930 Carmathians who settled in Bahrain, stole the Black Stone, and he was returned to Mecca in 951, the only, the authenticity established by the property not to drown in the water. In 1050 Mr. mad Egyptian caliph sent a man to destroy the relic. Kaaba twice burned, and in 1626 it was flooded g. After all these misfortunes, the original stone was split into 15 pieces. Now they are fastened with mortar and placed in a silver frame. The visible surface of the stone — roughly, 16.5 by 20 cm
In 1980 Elsebeth Thomsen suggested that black stone nature of the shock (melted sand mixed with meteoritic material), taken from the crater Vabar, located 1,080 km east of Mecca in Saudi Arabia's Empty Quarter. Stone from Vabar — frozen porous glass, so it is quite hard and brittle, and can float in the water, including a white glass (crystal) and sand (the band). Significant problem that contradicts this theory is that judging by the multiple dimensions Vabar crater has an age of several centuries, though there are also measurements stating that the age of the crater 6400 + / -2500 years.
Crater in Vabar (actually they, at least, three scattered over an area of 500 to 1000 meters — 116, 64 and 11 m in diameter) — a unique place and deserves a separate story about yourself. On the area of the floor square kilometer sand poluzasypany many fragments of black glass, white stones of caked sand and iron pieces. Nomadic Bedouins called the place Al-Hadid ("metal objects"). Iron stones found in the vicinity of the craters Vabar, have smooth surfaces covered with black soot desert bloom. The biggest piece of iron and nickel — the so-called Camel's Hump — was found Expedition 1965 and now on display at the Royal University in Riyadh. It weighs 2200 kg, has a smooth conical shape and is, apparently, a piece of the meteorite, which broke into several pieces before falling to the ground.
In the Koran there is the story of the king by the name of Aad, who mocked the prophet of Allah. For the wicked city of Ubar, and all of its inhabitants were destroyed with a black cloud, which brought on the wings of a hurricane. When English explorer Harry St. John Philby («Abdullah"), went to the forbidden Empty Quarter, he thought he would see the place where this legendary city, which in his version was named Vabar. He did not find the lost city, but I saw a place where there was no doubt cataclysm associated with the fall of the meteorite. Judging by the track, which he left, the energy released in the fall was the equivalent of a nuclear explosion capacity of about 12 kilotons, comparable to the explosion at Hiroshima. It was not the most powerful of all attacks that shook our Earth during its existence. But Vabar holds a special place in the study of meteors. Almost all known collisions occurred with hard rocky surfaces, or solid surfaces coated with a thin layer of soil or water. Falling in Vabar contrary, was in the middle of the world's largest uninterrupted sand seas. Dry isolated place, it is an ideal natural storage, easy to study its geological structure. Moreover, it is one of only 17 known locations of nearly 160 known impact structures that still contain a fallen meteorite.