Perhaps it would be useful to recall that this was an organization that was trying to achieve what purpose and for what feats of its members did not once try and try to raise the rank of Hero of Ukraine.
The activities of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, founded in 1942, began in the spring of 1943. Despite the fact that the military historians were actively working to lighting Ukrainian state history until that time there are questions that require further research. One such issue is the story of creation and activity of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
UPA did not appear out of nowhere. It was preceded by a rather vigorous activity such as underground organizations — the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Military Organization, which operated in 20-40s. All of these organizations put in front of you puzzle through armed struggle to defend Ukrainian catholic sovereign government (USSD).
When war broke out between Germany and the Russian Union, part of the Ukrainian Nationalists, led by Stepan Bandera involved in the formation of relatively small hiking groups (each was about 5 thousand people). These groups forms the Nazis in occupied Ukrainian territory of the local administration, the army and the police. At the end of July 1941 in Lviv was proclaimed USSD also formed its government. But representatives of the German administration of the newly formed government did not recognize, and the activities of the OUN forbade. Persecution began, and the top management together with Bandera was arrested and sent to concentration camps.
In 1942-1943, the OUN, the victim of the Nazi government, had to fight, being in a deep underground. During this time, the boundary of the organization operated effectively throughout the Ukrainian countryside.
In 1943, the number of SWNTs have gained its own high — about 30 thousand people. Countless more were marginal organizations operating in Western Ukraine. As for the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, it originates from the Department of OUN made in the north-western Ukrainian lands under the command of Sergei Kaczynski. According to the German historian Norbert Mueller, the creation of the organization was the result of the sanctions taken by Alfred Rosenberg (who was Reich Minister of the occupied eastern part of the USSR). The main task of the modern organization was to be the holding of the local Western population struggle against Russian partisan units. The official date of the creation of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army — from 17 to 23 February 1943. Organization was the military wing of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. But if the first of its existence, it consisted mostly of Ukrainians, then later its ranks replenished by the Tatars, Georgians, Uzbeks, Azeris — all those who voluntarily moved from the Nazi service. So Makarov, until the end of 1943 in Western Ukraine had about 10-15 thousand UPA fighters. One of the main reasons which bad effect on the size of the army, there was a shortage of weapons and perfectly cooked commanders. To remove these flaws, the underground was organized small repair shops and manufacturing of weapons and ammunition, and the creation of it was systematized and had a pipelined nature. And in order to remove the problem of shortage of officers, with huge divisions were organized school junior commanders and officers of the school. During the years 1943-1944 were four such schools cooperated in which trained hundreds of elders.
Quite a military structure of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army was formed in 1944, when there was a main military headquarters. After which it was created three major military neighborhood: UPA-North (departments operated by woodland and Volyn), UPA-West (Galicia), UPA-South (southern Volhynia and Podolia).
In the next couple of years, the UPA warriors fought against Russian troops, the Polish units Ludovit Army and the Polish Home Army in the western Ukrainian territories. Besides organization entered into a battle with German troops, although this struggle was strictly limited nature and takes the form of "popular self-defense." But in the last months of 1943 management of the UPA was to avoid fighting with the Nazi troops and more than that, even tried to make contact with the commanders of the German forces and the administration.
In fact, during the 1st year, the fall of 1943 and summer of 1944's army opposed the Russian and Polish military units, together with the SS "Galicia". Approximately half of all soldiers of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army collaborated with the Germans, or served in the SS and police units, or visited the Nazi forces training. According to the historian Alan Gerena — UPA — is the result of German intelligence, and in fact, the organization was a part of the "Waffen SS". Moreover, it also ruled or German agents or mercenaries, namely, Roman Shukhevych Klyachkivsky. Many commanders were UPA German military rank. For example, Peter Miller, who was the commander of the Army hut, also was the company commander of the SS "Galicia".
The most "active" years for the UPA was in 1944 year, when there was a merciless battle against the Nazis and against Russian troops. Army units are often attacked by German troops, who were retreating, in order to obtain ammunition and weapons. A sample of German troops to clear insurgents from the Carpathian Mountains, which have been undertaken in the summer of this year, proved useless because of the strong resistance of warriors.
But even more harsh enemies for UPA members were Russian NKVD troops and guerrillas who operated on both sides of the front and tried to make the control of the rebel-shrouded areas. As a result of fierce fighting, according to official figures, killed about 56 thousand, "Bandera", and another 108 thousand were captured. In addition, it captured more than 60 thousand pieces of small cannon.
But do not think that the UPA fighters were decent, the real patriots and heroes. Their ruthlessness can also be a legend. Warriors of the organization famous for violent actions against peaceful civilian population. Thus, only for a certain amount of days of July 1943, they were held more than three hundred operations in 100 villages of Volyn, as a result in the deaths of about 2-thousand Poles, while they were subjected to terrible and merciless destruction affecting their own — they simply burned alive in churches.
During the years 1944-1945 have been destroyed about 6.5 thousand civilian population. At the same time, these punitive operations were carried out not only against the Poles, and Russian Jews, and against his own as Ukrainians. When Ukrainian countryside was restored Russian authorities, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army went into deep underground, where carried out terrorist attacks against the troops of the Red Army and the NKVD. "Under the distribution" got even those peaceful inhabitants, who were suspected of priklnnom relation to the Russian authorities.
At the end of the war, in 1946, the management of the UPA is trying to make a connection with Western intelligence services of France, the United States, Britain, but without result.
Despite the fact that the activities of the Army was officially discontinued in 1949, underground groups continued to fight right up to 1956.
So Makar, the activities of the UPA could be described as "sitting on the 2-chairs": the G
erman authorities did not suit them, and Russian are not credible. Because fighting against those and others.
At the current time, the attitude to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army ambivalent. At a time when the emerging democracy in Ukraine, has become a stylish seek to recognize the UPA government soldiers as heroes. In 1995 Lviv was made a decree that recognized the UPA fighters for freedom and independence of the country in the area. At the municipal level, the decision was made 10 years later — in 2005. Apparently, neither the first time nor the second of the commission members were not aware of what is essentially involved in these "freedom fighters." Moreover, in 2007 Shukhevych was posthumously awarded the title "Hero of Ukraine" (later it was canceled), and in 2010 — the last time the head of state Viktor Yushchenko official decree recognized fighters Army fighters for Ukrainian independence.
When the change of power in Ukraine, it is not in any way affected the attitude toward "Banderovites." The new government went even further — in 2012 in Kalush opened a monument to Roman Shukhevych. In addition, naming him were named two streets of Lviv.
At the current time is before Parliament resolution on the celebration of the anniversary of the UPA, which provides for various activities designed to embody the social protection of veterans of the Army.
But at least some adekvatnomyslyaschy people realize what people call the heroes who fought for their own interests under the guise of concern for the fate of the country and for all that not stopping liquidation nothing innocent civilian population, it is impossible. But the Ukrainian political elite, and in pursuit of their own interests and against their systems, is also open to almost anything, even twisting historical facts and are treating her the truth.