Volcanic eruptions

August 17, 2012 12:57

According to scientists, it is volcanic activity in the past affected the climate change and completely transform our planet.

Now there are more than 60 active volcanoes, but the most dangerous — sleeping supervolcanoes — such as Yellowstone. Awakening and such a giant explosion will lead to the most disastrous consequences.

Predictor of Edgar Cayce said that in the first 20 years of the XXI century will scale geological cataclysm, causing "volcano explodes, the sun will be darkened, the ashes will dazzle your eyes." Marie Duval — a famous French astrologer and fortune teller — claims that the active movement of Uranus, Jupiter and Saturn in 2012 will lead to destructive processes in the Earth. With forecasters absolutely unanimous scientists who claim that over the last 30 years, the rate of migration of the magnetic poles increased 4 times, which can lead to serious tectonic disruptions.

Volcanologists, examining all the "hot spots" of the world, have come to the conclusion that global volcanic eruptions occur every 10 million years. And between these catastrophes was also unsettled: the duration of the secondary period of volcanic activity is exactly half — 5 million years. 65 million years ago, dinosaurs ceased to exist. Hence, we are facing major disasters, as 10 million years is about to end and the critical point of "boiling" of the world all coming.

History is rich in disaster-related explosions or eruptions of volcanoes:
— the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD destroyed Pompeii — the pearl of the Roman Empire and Gerkunalum. Volcano highlighted strong heat, which exceeded many times the one that stood out in the explosion of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima;

— eruption of Tambora in 1815 led to a reduction of the surface. Sumbawa, Indonesia, at 1250 m and killed about 92,000 people;

— the most powerful volcanic explosion occurred in 1883, between the islands of Java and Sumatra, Indonesia. The culprit was a volcano Krakatoa. The roar of the explosion was heard over 8% of the world, and the shock wave swept away 168 villages, killing more than 36,000 people.

But this is just three examples of volcanic force for their long history of our planet. And there was not a dozen. But do not look into the past — a lot of examples of 2011 to realize that volcanic activity has increased tenfold.

In spring 2010, the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull remember — the volcano in Iceland. Because of the powerful ejection of ash all air traffic in Northern Europe were paralyzed. If such a small eruption could drive a public into a panic — it is terrible to imagine what would happen if several volcanoes immediately showed their activity.

The highest volcano in Europe — Etna — woke up in January 2011 after five years of hibernation. According to scientists, the entire volcanic system is under extreme stress, underground ducts are filled with hot magma, which breaks out.

Volcanic eruption Puyeue in Chile in June 2011 was accompanied by a powerful earthquake. Thousands of residents had to be evacuated — the volcano spewed ash to a height of more than 10 km. Before that Puyeue slept 50 years, and now scientists say that it began to gain new momentum.

In addition, volcanologists worried sudden Uturunku active volcano in South America. It reaches a height of 6000 meters, and continues to grow. Magma it has accumulated ten times faster than conventional volcanoes. This can lead to the formation of the active supervolcano that is fraught with disastrous consequences. But even the chain of volcanic eruptions can compare with the power of a supervolcano.

What is supervolcanoes? This term was coined in 2005 in the form of U.S. scientists. Supervolcanoes produce the most powerful and voluminous eruptions — 8 on a scale of volcanic eruptions VEI. Effects of volcanic eruptions such forces affect climate change and can lead to the so-called volcanic winter. Sulfur gases and ash explosion reached the atmosphere and will lay the globe as a blanket. The sun's rays can not penetrate the earth, and the gases and turned into sulfuric acid cave to Earth as rain. The effect is similar to a nuclear winter. Scientists say that the Earth has already experienced such a catastrophe 74,000 years ago in the explosion of the Toba volcano on Sumatra, Indonesia. This has led to a change in climate and numerous casualties — more than 10,000 people worldwide have been destroyed. If we consider that the population then was thousands of times smaller, we can safely say that the eruption of the Toba supervolcano dramatically altered the course of the history of planet Earth. Toba caldera — flat and wide crater — an area of 1775 km ². Volume eruption was in 2800 km ². Scary to imagine what the consequences could lead such a disaster in our time.

The more that the threat is real. Under Yelloystounskim National Park is supervolcano. The caldera is located in the north-western part of Wyoming. Its size of about 55 km by 72 km, according to the measurements of Bob Christiansen of the U.S. Geological Survey. This volcano is so huge that not even form a cone, and the eruption of the upper portion just "falls" into a huge cavity, from which a red-hot magma. In addition, the placement of the volcano also is of interest — it is in the middle of the North American plate, and not on the boundary of tectonic structures as ordinary volcanoes. This only complicates the prediction of eruptions.

Supervolcanoes — a ticking time bomb, they magma does not go out and accumulate, causing the pressure inside the volcano growing. Once the pressure reaches a critical point, there was a violent explosion, which exceeds the usual explosion of a volcano thousands of times.

If you believe the scientists who say that the period of activity of the giant Yellowstone is 600 thousand years, we should expect that the volcano wakes up in the near future, since his last eruption was about 640 thousand years ago. Apparently, we are on the threshold of the next natural disaster.

What will be the consequences of the volcanic eruption of Yellowstone? In the case of the eruption of the volcano, even the most ordinary ash emissions in huge quantities leads to climate change, and if people do not feel the difference in the 2-3 degrees — nature immediately respond to such events. For example, in 1600, the eruption Huainaputina in Peru led to crop failure next three years, and the explosion of the volcano Tambora, Indonesia, in 1815, called the "year without a summer" in Europe and America.

If wakes Yellowstone starts all with the earthquake. Earth will shake as long as it will not break the rock layer that holds the magma. Enormous pressure and magma breaks simply be thrown into the atmosphere at 50 kilometers. All living within a thousand kilometers perish under ashes and lava, which will cover the entire surface of a layer of the U.S. is about 15 cm eruption itself will last about two days. The whole world will be covered in ash ball 8 cm In addition, thousands of cubic kilometers of ash, the volcano ejected into the atmosphere, in fact, cause a nuclear winter. Global temperature will go down as the last supervolcano eruption on Sumatra. Worst of all, of course, will have North America. There's life almost disappear, but lowering the temperature by about 20 degrees will cause both terrestrial hemisphere partially covered with ice.

That can lead to volcanic activity? Each volcano has its own period of "activity." But on the eruption or explosion of the volcano could affect any tectonic changes. It will be an earthquake, falling meteorite or asteroid, alien intervention or a change in the ground or raising the core temperature. The reasons can be many, but unfortunately, a volcanic eruption can not be prevented.

Whether awake or supervolcano simultaneous activity of its smaller brothers lead to climate change and the global chaos? It should also consider the fact that Yellowstone — so far the only known supervolcano sleeping. Caldera can only be detected from space. What is the guarantee that scientists know all the extinct giants of the world and not fear of sudden "sleepy" shock hitherto unknown supervolcano? In any case, tectonic activity and natural disasters of the last two years show that in the near future will show us the nature of all the possibilities and the future of humanity is waiting unattractive.

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