Yak-28 — Russian multi-purpose combat aircraft

Yak-28 is a Russian multi-purpose jet combat aircraft, which was manufactured in different versions. More vserasprostranennymi frontline bombers were modified (to systematize NATO Brewer), interceptor aircraft (to systematize NATO Firebar), as a scout, electronic warfare aircraft and a training machine (to systematize NATO Maestro). The first flight of the plane made March 5, 1958. Batch creation of the aircraft was completed in 1971. Only this time it was built in 1180 aircraft (among them accounted for the largest number of fighter-interceptor version of the Yak-28P). On the export multirole combat plane Yak-28 has not been delivered.

Yak-28 was performed on the aerodynamic configuration cantilever vysokoplana. The aircraft wing was swept. The aircraft was equipped with landing gear "bicycle" type with 2nd additional supports that were on the wingtips. Propulsion machinery consisted of 2-P-11 turbojet-300 various modifications, which were located in nacelles under the wings. In store was located in the fuel tanks of 6, 2 more mounted tank would be installed under the wing. Yak-28 could carry bombs caliber from 100 to 1500 kg, which were fixed in the internal bomb bay. The defensive armament aircraft included a 23-mm aircraft gun HP-23 (50 rounds ammunition), in 1964 it was replaced by the latest double-barreled gun GSH-23YA.

In 1960, based on the Yak-28 was created as double supersonic interceptor Yak-28P, which was designed to combat air targets at medium and low altitudes in bolshennom range of speeds at any time of the day in all weather criteria. On this version of the plane has been modified weapons system installed K-8 M-1, which consisted of 2 missiles R-8M-1 is filled with semi-active radar guidance and thermal heads, ignition systems and the latest radar "Eagle-D." Guns on this version of the aircraft were not stated. In comparison with the 1958 adopted interceptor aircraft Su-9, this system has been improved and allows the launching of missiles at a much greater distance from the goal.

Yak-28 - Soviet multirole combat aircraft

With the arrival of the first aircraft in combat units were revealed significant differences between the characteristics of the aircraft weapons systems from the manufacturer. Another severe drawback was the overall appearance of cracks in the aircraft, including the construction of the power components of the Yak-28. And if the cracks could quite rapidly understand: a cycle of leading endurance test, also produced the appropriate papers with tips for use. What with bringing to the marrow of available weapons control system had to tinker and conduct special studies. Precision bombing using supersonic speeds in combat units was so low that it was not even about hitting the target, but at least be within a range.

In the end, it turned out that the low precision bombing was associated not only with the features of the equipment (including the delay of electric monitoring device), and the criteria of flight, aerodynamics and bombs. Over time, the effectiveness of bombing the Yak-28 managed to pull up to the requirements of the Air Force, although the multi-purpose aircraft was never able to get rid of a number of limitations that had to do with the introduction of weapons.

It should be noted that the various shortcomings of the aircraft structure was given a point to know for the duration of its life, because the car without annoying doing enough. Thus, the freezing rotating antennas PKK trimmed sealing vertical tail fairings and hatches, and asynchronous flaps corrected through the use of a massive hydraulic drive. In order to reduce the length of the run and the run-up to the Yak-28 began to establish special propellant boosters and the rear landing gear made a "squat". Nose landing gear equipped with all this brake wheels have also introduced automatic release braking parachute (parachute breakdowns at a time when the land touches a special rod that descends from the tail of the Yak-28).

Yak-28 - Soviet multirole combat aircraft

Besides, there were quite a vast research performed snap damn car, though here the results and were worse than expected. It was established that the Yak-28 can go from a spin with a delay of 2-3 turns, also tends to change the direction of rotation. With all of this loss of height with the following dive was 8,000 meters. Because in the flight operation of the aircraft was indicated that in the absence from the plane out of a spin to a height of 4000 meters the pilots to leave the plane. Also the number of inappropriate implementation of the Yak-28 spin in teaching and training purposes.

At first, the Yak-28 caused some distrust among pilots. Difficulties brought frequent failures of engines and adjustable stabilizer (there was always a danger forgot his rearranged). With all this show still on the Yak-25 problem of sucking off the ground foreign objects was not absolutely fixed, and could present a very nasty surprises. To parry turn the Yak-28 in the event of engine failure, the aircraft was installed device — automatic AK-2A of the course, which is often instead of preventing catastrophes provoked them himself when issued "false failures", suddenly the rudder deflected to the side.

In such a situation overpower foot control was very difficult, and in this case the "false failure" occurred on take-off, the chances of successful resolution of the situation was not quite enough. In addition to piloting the development of certain complexity bother landing on a back support or on the 2nd point, because the parking angle of the plane was large enough, and the severity of keeping the glide path. When landing on the first support plane began to "bounce."

Yak-28 - Soviet multirole combat aircraft

Despite all this the car was easy compared with flying, and as its development in parts of the distrust of the aircraft was lost. Geography implementation of the Yak-28 looks very impressive on the map of the USSR would be hard to find a region where the planes were not exploited. Bomber Regiment, who defected to the latest technology with IL-28 and continued to do the Yak-28, their previous tasks, including those made to the target delivery of tactical nuclear weapons. Jammers were engaged in a cover tactical aircraft, reconnaissance regiments in the event of war had to act in the interests of the commanders of the fronts. Specifically, these parts should be more active to work. Their tasks included the detection of anti-aircraft and ballistic missiles, command Fri, operating reserves, communications and logistical communications possible opponent. In peacetime, the planes used for the realization of electronic surveillance along the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union.

For its time Yak-28 had significant battle load, and good maneuverability at top speed and afterburner thrust and good. All of these properties have allowed to start practicing group activities in the division right up to and including in all weather conditions an
d at any time of the day. Combat training pilots carried out only active, and the crews of the Yak-28 managed to achieve great results in fairly accurate bombing from a height of 12,000 meters, specifically those heights remains the main method of fighting the introduction of these vehicles.

Shortcoming of the aircraft was considered only a small range when using supersonic. With all this spy planes showed its advantage over the MiG-21R in versatility, and reliability eclipsed even later Su-24MP, which had a "raw" intelligence complex equipment. Even changing the actions of aviation in the increasingly low altitude did not result in loss of combat effectiveness of the Yak-28. The crews of scouts and bombers were able to identify appropriate methods, guided by which felt completely confident in myself flying near the ground and could handle the puzzles posed.

Yak-28 - Soviet multirole combat aircraft

Notable Facts

1. Pretty fascinating look that despite the fairly large number of issued and operated in line units of machines, aircraft was not officially accepted for service.

2. Specifically, the Yak-28 made its own feat Boris Kapustin captain and lieutenant Yuri Yanov to April 6, 1966 at the cost of his own life could have refused to take the plane with engines from residential areas of Berlin. Heroes were posthumously awarded the Order of the USSR Red Banner, and of their heroism was written by Robert Christmas song "Big Sky". The plane fell into the lake in the area of responsibility of England, the body of pilots together with fragments were raised by British military divers. With all of this the British were able to remove the plane radar "Eagle-D", which is then subjected to a comprehensive study.

3. Front-line bomber Yak-28 did not take part in any hostilities. During the invasion of Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact it was used only as an argument to a show of force. At the same time, apply the tool to the aircraft had all the same. Bombers from the 668 th BAP Tukums were used in the oppression of the riot on the BOD "sentinel", the uprising in which 8 November 1975 raised the political officer of the ship Valery Sablin.

Yak-28 - Soviet multirole combat aircraft

The afternoon of 9 November 10 Yak-28 went out of Tukums, with winding up order on the rebel ship leaving the Irben Strait. Due to adverse weather conditions in the area target has managed to find only one crew Colonel Porotikova, which and led the group. FAB-250 bombs that fell near the stern, "Sentinel", managed to deprive the ship move. Once taken off the Yak-28 bombed by being sent to Finland Russian cargo ship, by happy coincidence, the victims managed to escape. 3rd Yak-28 went out on a boat Commander of the Baltic Fleet, but the crew realized the error of fit. Irony in this situation is not worth it, because it is worth noting that the tense atmosphere at all levels of government, and mental complexity of the tasks before crews.

The performance properties of the Yak-28:
Dimensions: Wingspan — 11.78 m, length — 20,02 m, height — 4.3 m
Wing area — 35.25 square meters. m
Aircraft weight, kg.
— normal take-off — 16 160;
— maximum take-off — 18,080;
Motor Type — 2 THD 11AF2 P-300, the maximum thrust 2h6100 kgs.
The highest speed — 1850 km / h;
Flight range — 2070 km.
Service ceiling — 14,500 m
Crew — 2 people.
Armament: Cannon: 1? 23 mm NR-23 (in the next 2? 23 mm GSH-23YA)
Bombings: normal bomb load — 1200 kg., Maximum — 3000 kg.

Sources disk imaging:
— http://www.airwar.ru/enc/bomber/yak28.html
— http://www.opoccuu.com/yak-28.htm
— http://ru.wikipedia.org/

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