Angry fierce battle?
He fell — bowed his head to the skies
And clenched his sword in his hands …
In the portrait gallery of delicious Russian military, the real heroes of Russian war of 1812 can not be dispensed without a name Yakov Kulneva brave and experienced officer, a member of the vast number of wars of the late XVIII — early XIX centuries.
Kulnev belonged to the poor little nobility, his father — PV Kulnev (military, participating in almost all of the iconic Russian wars) contained a large family on a small salary of an officer, having all of this small family estate in the Kaluga province with 25 souls of serfs farmers. Jacob's mom Kulneva was German and a Catholic by confession.
Cramped actual incident and strict Christian morality parents is intended that the six sons and a daughter Kulnevo from early youth brought up in deference to the work, nature of modesty and frugality in the home.
At the age of 7 years old little Jacob was determined to land gentry military corps, which He graduated in 1786 with a large silver medal, and went to serve in Chernigov Infantry Regiment with the rank of lieutenant. Already this year, Kulnev was transferred to St. Petersburg Dragoons, in which structure and went to the first private military campaign in Turkey. During the Turkish campaign he distinguished himself during the siege and capture of Bender.
Being transferred to Perei horse regiment of Chasseurs, Jacob Kulnev corps under the command of General Knorring, participated in the 1794 battles under Oshmyany under Lida and in the districts of the town of Vilna, and later by Kobrin, Brest-Litovsk and Warsaw during the Polish rebellion of oppression. Polish campaign was headed by A. Suvorov, the simplicity of their lives and care about the life of a soldier whose service, struck down the young officer Kulneva and became for him a benchmark to which to aspire to any Russian military patriot.
Role in Polish affairs brought Yakov Petrovich ranks of captain and major, but the upcoming officer career stalled due to the long years of inactivity for Sumy Hussars (where Kulnev at that time served), did not participate in the Italian campaign of Suvorov, nor in the war against the French in the years 1804-1805.
Only by taking the rank of lieutenant colonel and transferred to the Grodno Hussars, Kulnev participates in the campaign against the French in 1807. It is here, in the struggles for Heilsberg, Gutdshtatom, Friedland, fully manifested his military commander's courage and ability. For heroic conduct on the battlefield, Yakov Petrovich gets merit: the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree and the Order of St. Anne 2nd degree.
During the Russian-Swedish war of 1808-1809 Kulnev again demonstrated its distinctive character of the Russian cavalry officer. Acting on the terrain of Finland led the rearguard of the Russian army, he doggedly pursued the Swedish general Adlerkreytsa squad. Moving in heavy terrain criteria, the criteria bitter cold of the Finnish and finding no support in the middle of mestnorgo population squad Kulneva yet necessarily advancing directly behind the departing enemy. Turning to the area of the town Gump-Carlebach at the disposal of General Tuchkova, Kulnev kept coming, but stumbled on the Swedish squad significantly superior strength squad Yakov, he suffered a defeat against the Swedes and was obliged to withdraw.
Later, but strengthened the position of the Russian army, and Kulnev already involved in the capture of the fortress Yakobshtadt: for heroic conduct on the battlefield, he gets credit for a golden sword with the inscription "For Bravery". Soon Jacob Kulnev again different, capturing the Swedish general Levengelma (for which he received the rank of colonel). Bold acts Kulneva at the battles of Kuortane, Lappo Oravayse and bring him a new rank Gen.-Major and the Order of St. George ZHoru grade 1 (according to the name of the direction of Alexander II).
In 1809 Kulnev was able to distinguish that translates Corps General Bagration through the ice fields of Bothnia. According to the memoirs of his contemporaries, before this campaign announced Kulnev people own squad: "God is with us, I'm in front of you, Prince Bagration us. Hike to the Swedish coast topped all the work … Carry with them for two goblets of vodka on a person, a piece of meat and bread and two garntsa oats. " Already in this one there is a strong expression of Suvorov Military School, which was soaked through and through Jacob Kulnev.
That campaign was crowned with success Kulneva: walking up the accelerated march to the Aland islands, he broke through the ice mountains to the Swedish coast and occupied Grisselgam, creating a serious military threat Stockholm. This fast-break was the key to the Swedish-Russian world and Kulnev, received the Order of St. Anne 1st degree, remains in a while an assistant general Demidov, chief of the garrison left the Aland Islands.
In the years 1810-1811 Kulnev in the Belarusian Hussars and led the vanguard of the Moldavian army participates in the recent Russian-Turkish war. 11 and 12 June 1810 under the city Shumla Yakov Petrovich with 2 of their own brave hussar regiments stormed the Turkish cavalry, scattering them in a difficult battle. For this feat he was granted a 12-year lease for 1,000 rubles, which he wasted no time peredaril as a dowry of his brother's daughter.
In August of the same year, James P. heroically managed by the infantry and cavalry at the village Batanya, for which he was graciously awarded a golden sword with diamonds.
In 1811, Jacob Kulnev vorachivaetsya in Grodno Regiment and became its commander.
But, there comes a harsh 1812, and Yakov Petrovich Kulnev trust command 5-thousandth of a cavalry troop, a member of the corps of General Wittgenstein.
In the first days of the war as Kulnev protects Vilkomir, allowing the main Russian forces to retreat, and he himself departs later, burning the bridges behind them.
As part of the Army Corps Kulnev participated in the battles of the passage of the enemy to St. Petersburg. And acted as always — at the forefront in coming, and the rear guard — during the withdrawal of Russian troops.
Skillfully maneuvering mobility of the Light Brigade, Kulnev French attacks puts in a dangerous position. On 18 and 19 July, he was able to inflict a tangible loss avant-garde French troops under General Oudinot villages Klyastitsy and Yakubov, with all this baggage captured enemy prisoners of war and 900.
July 20, Yakov Petrovich again crossing the river Drissa, and once again stormed the French, inflicting another defeat. Fascinated by martial ardor attack Kulnev not immediately seen pulling up to the site of the main battle of the French forces, nearly drowned herself victorious march of the brave Russian officer barrage of artillery fire. And the choking attack was the latest to Gen.-Major Kulneva — as always heroically closing own team at the retreat, Yakov Petrovich at one point falls dead kernel and buckshot tears legs above the knees. Dying, the hero says fellow soldiers surrounding him: "My friends, do not give the enemy a step of his native land. Victory awaits you! ".
So, not having lived a couple of days before his own sorokadevyatiletiya, dying on the battlefield, Yakov Petrovich Kulnev, starting his own demise sad l
ist of those killed in the war of 1812 Russian generals …
Speaking of this brave man, hero of Russian war who died for their country in battle, it is impossible not to note a number of features that have given him during his life and later his contemporaries.
Pushkin makes the mouth of the 1st of their own characters story "Dubrovsky" landowner Globovoy, these words: "… suddenly enters to me a man of 35-minute, dark, black hair and a mustache, beard, who is portrait Kulneva…. " Napoleon himself in one of the discussions with subordinates Kulneva referred to as "one of the best generals of the Russian cavalry."
Colleagues also Yakov in his memoirs noted that even when he was already a general, he is in the best traditions of Suvorov of the ordinary soldier wearing a coat and ate the same food that was given to soldiers.
About many states education Kulneva Jacob, his love for the Russian and Roman history, which, for sure, based its democratic and open-minded with regard to ordinary people (widely known is the fact that Kulnev gave freedom to their serfs).
Yakov Petrovich Kulnev was buried near the village Sivoshino, and in the midst of local farmers long been a legend that gained Kulnev own peace on the same hill, which once bore his mother on a trip from Polotsk in Lucyna. Later, the siblings of the heroic general of Russian war of 1812 remains Kulneva transported for burial in the family estate Ilzenberg Vitebsk province, and on the mound in place Sivoshino was a monument inscribed with verses on it VAZhukovskogo "Singer in the camp of the Russian soldiers."