13 — 16 November 1920 there was a final of the Russian army of General Wrangel and sympathetic to her civilian population of the Crimea beyond the boundaries of Russia. This event is referred to as the end time of war, civilian clothes in southern Russia. Many thousands of military and civilian refugees were obliged to leave Russia and escape into the unknown.
The evacuation was associated with the success of the Red Army's offensive forces of the Southern Front under the command of Mikhail Frunze in order to break through the fortifications of white on the Isthmus and Perekopskyi Sivash and occupation of the Crimean peninsula (Perekop-operation Chongarskaya November 7 — November 17, 1920). On the peninsula were three roads. Perekops'kyi isthmus width of about 10 km. To the east, at Siwash, which comes close to the Crimea peninsula Chongarsky, it was built by a narrow causeway with a bridge and a railway line, and elsewhere has been placed horse-drawn bridge. Third way has been posted yet east — through Henichesk bridge Arabat arrow. In the spring of 1920 white have decided to further strengthen them, but really have not done enough. Due to lack of funds, materials, and of the lack of assertiveness of going slowly.
At Perekop first line of defense was the Turkish wall — land, rolled in the Middle Ages. Behind him in the 20-25 km Ishun housed several lines of fortifications between the lakes and bays. All positions were the trenches everyday, often because of poluobvalivshiesya autumn rain. They covered the Stitching wire fence. Dugouts were derevozemlyanye, artillery had only field fortifications, and not long. In fact, the heavy artillery was not practically, it was lost during the retreat, the foreigners as the supply is not in a hurry. Rail access to Ishun fortifications for the transport of ammunition was not completed. Turkish wall defended Drozdovskaja Division, which consisted of only 3.2 thousand bayonets. The tongue of the Lithuanian peninsula was 2-thousand. Fostikova team. Kornilov and Markivtsi Ishun occupied the position they covered the southern part of the Sivash. On Chongarsky clockwise direction and Arabatskaya defense corps took Don and Kuban (about 3 thousand people). In reserve were the 13th, 34th Division and the Cavalry Corps. All the parts were very bled previous fights. Behind additionally formed 15th division. Total defense held about 35 thousand infantry and cavalry with 200 guns, 750 machine guns, 14 armored trains, 45 tanks and armored vehicles. Only a few thousand were engaged in the protection of communications, facilities and the fight against the guerrillas.
Russian commanders focused for this crucial operations are very strong group. Southern Front had a total of about 190 thousand infantry and cavalry with 985 guns, 4,435 machine guns, 17 armored trains and 57 armored vehicles. In addition, under the authority of Frunze "dad" Makhno gave 5.5 million housing under the Karetnikova. Frunze initially planned to strike the main blow of the 4th Army and the 1st Cavalry through Arabat arrow. But the part of the Sea of Azov is the direction the fire was protected ships of white and reddish flotilla remained in Taganrog because of early freeze-up. The main direction of attack had to move on Perekop. The breakthrough was to perform the 6th Army, a double blow — the forehead and landing a Siwash to Lithuanian peninsula. At the direction of the planned strike Chongarsky secondary attack.
November 7 Reddish Army conducted a reconnaissance in force on Chongarsky direction. The Crimean peninsula was declared a state of siege, General Kutepov was appointed head of the defense. On the night of November 8, the main operation began. Turkish wall began to attack a group of Blucher's four brigades of the 51st Division, Latvian Division Artillery Group of 55 guns and armored group — 14 armored vehicles. After Siwash threw 20 thousand troops in the 2-brigades of the 51st Division, 15 th and 52 th divisions. During a fierce battle took positions reddish snow-white, but come on Lithuanian peninsula failed, they stopped by artillery fire and counter-attacks of white reinforcements arrived. Reddish landing on the aid was transferred 7th Cavalry Division and Makhno, this led to a turning point in this direction. Then Frunze sent to this destination yet and the 16th Cavalry Division. Snow-white under strong pressure began to recede, and reddish erupted in Crimea.
Shaft on the Turkish situation for the Red Army was more severe. Snow-white angrily fought back and repelled the assault of three. Only during the night the fourth storm of reddish able to break through the position of white. Drozdovtsy and Kornilov had already been cut off from their own, but were able to break through the road. By the evening of November 9, reddish came in Ishun positions, and 51th Division to move them broke. Breakthrough white suspended. But the white pulled guns and opened heavy fire. Coming on November 10, has been continued, and the 51st Division captured a second line of defense. Wrangel tried to organize a counter-attack, pulling the body Barbovicha and started to flip case with Don Chongar direction.
Reddish command to learn about the movement of white troops by air reconnaissance, gave an order to strike out on Chongarsky direction of the 4th Army, and the 2nd Cavalry Army was focused on Perekop. On the night of 11 th November at the coming of Chongarsky direction began. This impact could cause damage to the Reds in the rear of the whole gang of white Ishun. Wrangell reversed Don Corps and sent to the station Tanagash all serviceable armored train.
November 11 came the decisive battle. Latvian division, which was replaced by the 51th, broke the third and last band Ishun positions on the western flank. On the eastern flank of the body Barbovicha counterattacked. A white horse knocked the 7th and 16th Cavalry Division, knocked on the 15 th and 52 th Infantry Divisions. But it was stopped by the forces coming 2nd Cavalry and Makhno. The commander of the 2nd Cavalry Philip Mironov used the stratagem for the first line were placed above the 2-hundred "carts" with machine guns. After a collision with a snow-white, reddish parted and swept the advanced units of the enemy machine gun fire. Snow-white mixed and began to withdraw. By the end of the day or reddish Army captured the last line Ishun fortifications. After a fierce battle, the troops broke and reddish under Chongar. At 3 am on Nov. 12 broke into the reddish Tanagash. Reddish troops with 2 threads began to come to the Crimea.
Civilian population of the Crimean peninsula until the last day or in a state of blissful ignorance. Snow-white command, so as not to encourage panic and do not cause activation of the Bolshevik underground, after the failure of the October coming, said the population that the withdrawal was carried out in an organized and with insignificant losses. It was reported that reddish Army in the coming days are trying to break into the peninsula, but will pay tribute to fight back. Crimea was declared a "besieged fortress", which will be held until a change in the general situation. The newspapers have developed the theme, "creative" complement. It has been reported that the "Perekops strongholds" Crimean population can "safely look at their future." There are even claims that the number of Russian army of Wrangel sverhizbytochna to protect the "strongholds" Perekopa. Thus, the general Slashchev November 7 stated that "our army is so great that one-fifth of its memb
ers would be enough to protect the Crimea …".
As a result, peninsula until recently lived quietly. Worked cinemas, staged plays, non-partisan public meeting headed by Prince Dolgoruky has taken an appeal to the Entente, where "key to salvation from Bolshevism" was named the Crimea. Only the more farsighted find ways to save and buy up the currency. For most people defeat on November 8-11, was like a bolt from the blue in the middle. People knew that a fierce battle is inevitable, but believed that the coming of the Red Army is broken on defense zones Perekopa.
Even the command of the army of snow-white, which has a much more complete information about the situation, did not imply that of the final. Wrangell believed that under the Frunze about 100 thousand man, 25 thousand of their cavalry, in fact, the Southern Front had a total nearly 200 thousand people, more than 40 thousand cavalry. An advantage of huge reddish was created by artillery and machine guns. With the possibility of defeat were considered, but did not believe that everything happens so fast. It was believed that the time to prepare for the likely evacuation will be enough.
November 10, after meeting with Kutepov Wrangel was decided to evacuate rears. To solve the puzzles were requisitioned all commercial vessels in ports, regardless of nationality. Their ship became hospitals, some central institutions. After a French member of the Comte de Martel Wrangel government appealed to France asking to grant asylum. Of staff officers began to form teams for the prevention of disorder that would have been caused by a message on the fall line of defense. Soon, even without public announcement, began to issue documents for evacuation and a civilian population.
In the night from 11 to 12 November, when the last lines of defense fell, the evacuation plan has been prepared. Ships and vessels were divided between the parts highlighted in the transports for the families of military, government and rear agencies and organizations. The remaining ships were to be used for export in the middle of wanting to civilian populations. To speed up the loading and produce it without delay, every part has its own port for loading. 1st and 2nd Corps had to retreat to Sevastopol and Evpatoria, body Barbovicha — in Yalta, Kuban — Theodosia, Don people — in Kerch. The troops retreated sufficiently organized, they even managed to break away from the Reds 1-2 transition. It should be noted that the development of evacuation plan began six months before the evacuation, he developed the General Headquarters with the commander of the fleet. To implement the plan in the Black Sea basin had to constantly keep a certain tonnage. All ships and boats were assigned to the ports. In these ports was made sacrosanct in store carbon, lubricating oil and food supplies in the event of evacuation announcements.
Reddish Army spent regrouping. Frunze, apparently waiting for the fierce resistance of the doomed snowy parts, and offered them an honorable surrender, promising liberty, security, and even the right to travel abroad under fair word to finish the fight against the Bolsheviks. November 12, Frunze for the proposal criticized by Lenin. In just one day reddish forces continued coming. 6th army moved to Evpatoria, 2nd and 1st Horse Army — to Simferopol and Sevastopol, the 4th Army and the 3rd Cavalry Corps — to Feodosia and Kerch. November 13th reddish took Simferopol.
The French government, after a certain hesitation, agreed to grant asylum to the Russian army of Wrangel and refugees. But as a "pledge" the French claimed all the ships. November 12 order was issued on Wrangel total evacuation. All those wishing to stay in Russia given complete freedom. Spoiling and destruction of property was prohibited. South Russian government warned people about the difficulties of the transition to tight criteria, and those leaving the fate of the upcoming suspense, because none of the foreign countries gave their own consent to be evacuated.
Slashchev offered to give the final battle in the Crimea, the Caucasus or Posada, a foothold. But Kutepov Wrangell and refused to support these ventures. People are loaded with a variety of good, flocked to the ports. For most, this was the sudden evacuation. In general, during the evacuation, unlike similar events in Odessa and Novorossiysk, order was maintained. Special teams were unable to even stop what measures mess. The procedure helps to maintain a significant number of vessels and the Crimea was leaving the entire fleet, vessels took part in tow. In addition, some of the people were loaded onto foreign ships — French, English, etc. To locate more people were thrown into the sea of ammunition, other property. Possessed people on the walkways and decks. So, on the destroyer "Grozny", at the nominal size of the crew of 75 people, 1015 people evacuated. The steamer "Saratov", which was calculated at 1,860 people, was planted 7056. Steamers went to the extreme overloads. There was not enough food, water, contemporary space. It is clear that individual cases of looting, riots have occurred, but did not accept bulk order. Namely, in Simferopol robberies involved prisoners released from the bullpen, in Alushta and Yalta looted wine cellars and warehouses in Sevastopol robbed the South American Reddish Cross, etc.
However, many have decided to stay. Some people do not want to leave their homeland to become a fugitive, wandering through strange edges. On the other acted element of surprise, maybe having more time for reflection, they would be evacuated. Others trust leaflets Frunze Brusylov mercy to the rest. Others simply do not have time to escape, etc. In general, quite a significant number of white and "bourgeois" left.
Evening November 13, 1920 came the last meeting of the government of the South of, November 14, loaded on vessels over. Wrangell transferred to the cruiser "General Kornilov." Was created almost a whole "snow-white city "on the water. Already on board Wrangell French government has made a proposal for the transfer of the Russian army on the "Western Front" for the struggle against Bolshevism, "enemies of the world civilization and culture." Snow-white still did not believe that such is not the front. Western governments did not want to directly confront Russian Russia. In case of impossibility of such solutions, Wrangell proposed to raise the question of giving a snow-white Army Navy at the disposal of an international commission for the protection of the straits.
Snow-white fleet (more than 120 vessels) with approximately 150 thousand exiles headed for Constantinople. November 15 cruiser "General Kornilov" dropped Wrangel in Yalta, where the commander is satisfied after the evacuation of troops. Then she was visited by Theodosius, there was not enough tonnage and part of the Kuban Cossacks headed to Kerch. Wrangell and visited Kerch, there turned out that Don and Kuban Cossacks safely removed. On the morning of November 17 last cruiser passed along the coast and headed for the Bosphorus. The Russian army of Wrangel was evacuated one hundred percent, not counting those who are left behind on the road, was cut off from the port, or he decided to stay. Going by sea from ports of the Crimean peninsula to Constantinople lasted from 1 to 5 days, for many people it has become a true flour. In practice, this was a typical prelude of the deprivation and misery that will accrue to the majority of Russian immigrants in a foreign land.
November 15, forces of the Red Army occupied the Sevastopol and Feodosiya, November 16 — Kerch, and November 17 — Yalta. Chongarskaya Perekop-operation has been completed successfully, the Crimean peninsula was occupied by all of the Red Army, the Southern Front plainclothes war was eliminated.
Crimea is expected ahead o
f the wave of "red terror", which was organized by the chairman of the Crimean Military Revolutionary Committee, Bela Kun and the Secretary of Party Committee of the Crimean AR Zemlyachka (Zalkind). Crimea was blocked by the troops. Passes to the exit of the peninsula signed personally Bela Kun. Terror has collapsed at the officers, then to the family members of the Whites, people with aristocratic origins, employees of various institutions, "bourgeois". Spend the whole raid when beleaguer entire neighborhoods and some days have inspected the documents, some released, others destroyed. Thousands of people were killed. Then added to the terror famine, since the peninsula was virtually impossible to leave, many people in the Crimea were doomed to starve to death. Particularly affected refugees who had no source of livelihood.