In the Russian literature, "cromlech" commonly called megalithic stone circles. At the same time, the word "cromlech" derives from the Celtic «crwm» (arched) and «llech» (stone floor). This corresponded dolmenopodobnym facilities. Therefore, in Wales, and partly across Britain, cromlechs known fact that in Russian literature as dolmens. A loopback stone structures in the English tradition called the «stone circles«. That too is the term "Henge". However, once referred to as the stone circles in Russian "cromlech", and we will follow this tradition.
The stones that make up the cromlech, can be both elongated style menhir, or a completely shapeless boulders. Cromlechs sometimes have a more complicated structure — the constituent stones can be in pairs or three at once covered the top horizontal plate as a roof. Stone — not the only building material for the cromlechs. Thus, in the county of Norfolk (England) in the quicksand was found wooden cromlech.
All researchers agree that cromlechs svyazvany the Sun. Some consider them sanctuaries, others — astronomical observatories.
But many cromlechs Rural location for not "sunny" places, in thickets and lowlands. This eliminates the "Observatornaya" interpretation and questions the only solar value mound. In the center mound usually installed menhir (vertical stone) or hearth. Thus, we get yonilingamny symbol, a symbol of union of male and female (circle Menhir).
All this indicates that the most consistent cromlechs Mother than Father, and in its fertilized aspect. That is meant cromlech Face Mother turned to the Father, receiving His strength. Another confirmation of the "mother" of the meaning of cromlechs is that they often are buried, or cromlechs even specifically built around the mounds. We have already said that the birth and death are the "prerogatives" is the Great Mother.
However, Sunny, paternal aspect, of course, also pristutstvuet explicitly. Not only the cyclic structure, obvious astronomical numerical matching (for example, often 12 stones), but also the strength of cromlechs, testifies to this. For example, in the Crimea of menhirs are sawed-off antlers or entire skeletons of deer — an animal that is associated with the sun among all nations.
Thus, the dolmen was built on the spot (or create such a place), where the forces of the Earth and the Sun, the Mother and the Father are connected, interpenetrate and complement each other. This vazimoproniknovenie, which is considered as a source of life, which makes generic cromlechs centers of worship. Central menhir, "family stone", in fact, a symbol of this kind, the tribe as a unit of life. Accordingly, it embodies all the past and future of the tribe, it was as the abode of the spirits of ancestors and a source of strength for new births. The sacrifices in cromlechs, were aimed primarily at maintaining life of the race.
It is therefore necessary to note that the strength of cromlechs always aims to ensure the continuity of the flow of life, it is more a group than an individual character. A person first enters the building type henge, feels very strange feeling. All claim that they changed the heart rate, increases the sharpness of the senses: they begin to see more clearly and more vividly, stable emotional state: all the cares of the present day retreat, opens horizons for generalization, if someone manages human consciousness. All this also explains the "generic" force cromlechs.
Cromlechs are found almost everywhere in Europe, and in Asia, and even Australia. Especially a lot of them in the Caucasus, the British Isles and France, on the peninsula of Brittany. The most famous cromlech — Stonehenge (Stonehenge). Avebury Henge, is less known than Stonehenge, but surpasses it in size and structure. Its diameter is more than a quarter-mile, difficult boulders weighing up to 90 tons. Avebury stones are among the largest ever erected megaliths — from 60 to 90 tons, almost twice as heavy as the biggest dolmen at Stonehenge.
Numerous cromlechs and Crimea.
In Crimea, the largest cromlech is under water reservoir near Simferopol former Vorontsovskaya groves in Simferopol. As described it, "in a circle with a diameter of 12 m tower here solemnly vertical pillars — menhirs."
No less famous cromlech in Alushta. This cromlech was supposedly built in the 3rd millennium BC. e., and is the same age as the English Stonehenge. It was first described in 1886 by Russian archaeologist and ethnographer V.F.Millerom. In 1886 VF Miller excavated a small mound. Was discovered during excavations stone circle with a stone burial box in the center. Presumably — dumping leader, V — VI centuries. BC. e. Found the remains of bones, ceramics, memorial meal. "It is kind of a low mound, about nine yards in diameter at the base of the fortified absolutely correct ring of huge set at the edge of the 29 stones height of 1.5 to 2 yards. The inner ring is studded with small stones, so it is almost paved. In the middle of a circle of large stones piled heap, one of which is a column of a height of two feet of, erected on the east side at a distance of fourteen feet from the edge. The space around the monument is strewn with stones, two of which form a large sign on the west side. " To date, it is best to save the "average" range of 24 stones, as well as the "inner square" of the 12 stones — three on each side. From "outside" the circle remained only two stones (there could be 48).
Like many cromlechs in Crimea, known, for example cromlech several kilometers west of Alushta, directly in the mountains, one more — at the village Barabanovka Simferopol district and many others.