Now the Cuban crisis, as it is called in the United States is estimated differently. Some consider the operation "Anadyr" brilliant work Russian secret services and the organization of military supplies, and risky, but a competent political move, others brand Khrushchev for poor judgment. To claim that Khrushchev foresaw fully the consequences of decisions on the placement of nuclear weapons in the Peninsula of freedom, is not correct. Stealther and experienced politician probably aware that the response of the United States will be determined.
Consider the actions of the Russian military control in Cuba should be, taking into account the background of the crisis. In 1959, on the Peninsula, in the end, defeated the Revolution, and stood at the head of the country's Fidel Castro. Special support from the Soviet Union during this period, Cuba did not receive, because it was not seen as a measured participant of the socialist camp. But in the 1960s, after the introduction of the economic blockade by the U.S. in Cuba begin delivery of Russian oil. In addition, the Soviets became the main trading partner of the young communist country. In the country pulled thousands of professionals in the field of agriculture and industry, began large finansovlozheniya.
Interests of the Union in the peninsula were motivated by ideological convictions are not far away. The fact is that in 1960 the United States succeeded in placing on the terrain of Turkey its nuclear medium-range missile flight, sparking outrage in Moscow recently. Successful strategic position allowed the Yankees to control large Russian areas, including the capital, the speed of start-up and merit of the goals of the weapons was small.
Cuba was placed in a specific proximity to the borders of the United States, because placement of offensive weapons with nuclear warheads could at least make up for some creates an advantage in the confrontation. The idea of posting on the terrain of the island launchers with nuclear missiles belonged specifically Nikita Sergeyevich, and it was suggested to them May 20, 1962 Mikoyan, Malinowski and Gromyko. After the idea was supported by and has been developed.
The enthusiasm in placing on its territory Russian military bases from Cuba was obvious. Since its adoption as a political leader and head of state, Fidel Castro became constant target for various types of U.S. provocations. Tried to remove it, and the U.S. Open was preparing a military invasion of Cuba. Evidence of which was even a poor attempt landing landing in the Bay of Pigs. Increasing Russian troops and arms build-up on the peninsula gave hope for the preservation of the regime and the country's sovereignty.
With the agreement of Castro, Moscow launched a broad secret operation for the transfer of nuclear weapons. Missiles and accessories for their installation and activation readiness delivered to peninsula under the guise of trade of goods, unloading produced only NIGHT MODE. In the holds of ships to Cuba left about forty thousand soldiers, dressed in civilian, which is strictly forbidden to speak the Russian language. During the journey the soldiers could not go out into the open air, because the command is seriously afraid to be exposed ahead of schedule. Control of the operation to put Marshal Hovhannes Baghramyan Hachaturyanovicha.
First rocket Russian ships unloaded in Havana on September 8, the second batch arrived on the 16th of the same month. The captains of cargo ships were unaware of the disposition of cargo and the place of his destination before sending them were given envelopes, they could open only on the high seas. The text of the order indicated the necessity of following the coast of Cuba and the evasion of meetings with NATO ships. The main part of the missile was located in the western part of the island, there is concentrated the vast majority of military personnel and professionals. Part of the missiles to be erected in the center, and some in the East. By 14 October peninsula delivered 40 medium-range missiles with nuclear warheads and started installing them.
The actions of the Soviet Union, Cuba watched warily from Washington. Young south american President John F. Kennedy once a day, collected Ekskom-Executive Committee of State Security. Right before September 5, the U.S. has sent reconnaissance planes U-2, but the data on the presence of nuclear weapons, they did not bring. Hide, but on the intentions of the USSR, it was becoming increasingly difficult. Missile length, coupled with the tractor was about 30 meters, because of their unloading and transportation was the seen by local residents, among whom were many American agents. Yet, some guesswork Yankees seemed not quite, only photo made Oct. 14 pilot Lockheed U-2 Heiser have left no doubt in the fact that Cuba has become one of the strategic Russian bases filled with nuclear missiles.
Kennedy believed Russian management is not able to act so decisively, because images are at least a surprise. From October 16 reconnaissance planes start to fly over the peninsula up to 6 times per day. The Committee has put forward two main proposals: to begin military action, or establish a naval blockade of Cuba. The idea of invading Kennedy immediately reacted critically, because realize that similar could trigger beginning of the Third World. Take responsibility for the consequences of such decisions the president could not because the South American forces were focused on the blockade.
Intelligence activities of the Yankees in the incident showed its worst side. Details of the special services of the president, were far from the truth. For example, the number of troops of the USSR, in their disk imaging, Cuba
is less than 10 thousand people, while the real numbers has long exceeded 40 thousand. Americans did not know and that the peninsula has not only a medium-range nuclear missiles, and nuclear weapon close range action. The bombing, which was so forcefully suggested South American military has already taken place could not be, because four launchers were ready for October 19. In the range of their reach went, and Washington. Landing troops also threatened to tragic consequences, because the Russian military was ready to resort to complex, under the title "The Moon."
Tensions continued to run high, because none of the parties is not lusted to make concessions. For the U.S. deployment of missiles in Cuba was a safety issue, and the Soviet Union was in the sights of the South American missile system in Turkey. Cubans sought to open fire on a reconnaissance plane, but had to abide by the decisions of the USSR.
October 22 followed by a public statement in the address Yankees Kennedy that Cuba really set an offensive weapon against the United States, and the Government will consider at least some act of aggression as the beginning of the war. This meant that the world is on the brink of destruction. The international community has supported the South American blockade, almost all due to the fact that the Russian administration for a long time concealed the true meaning of their actions. But Khrushchev did not recognize the legitimacy of her and said that the fire will be opened at least which of the courts that have expressed anger to the Russian maritime transport. A huge part of the ships of the USSR still obliged to return home, but 5 of them were approaching the place of destination, accompanied by four diesel submarines. Submarines carried on board their own weapons, capable of killing a large part of the South American fleet in the region, but this is not the United States have been informed.
October 24, one of the ships "Alexander" up on the shore, but the address was sent a telegram Khrushchev called for prudence. The next day after the scandalous revelations at the United Nations, the United States was the first time ever ordered on alert 2. At least some careless action could trigger the onset of the war — the world froze in anticipation. Happy Khrushchev sent a conciliatory letter, in which proposed to dismantle missiles in exchange for a promise to abandon the U.S. invasion of Cuba. The decor is somewhat weak and Kennedy decided to postpone the start of hostilities.
The crisis escalated again on October 27, when Russian control was put forward by an additional requirement on the dismantling of U.S. missiles in Turkey. Kennedy and his entourage to imagine that in the Soviet Union the military revolution, as a result of which Khrushchev was shifted. At this time, was shot down over Cuba south american reconnaissance plane. Some believe that this was a provocation by the Commander, who advocated a categorical denial of the withdrawal of weapons from the island, but most of the calls the tragedy of self-willed actions of the Russian commanders. October 27 of the world closer in its history was on the brink of self-destruction.
On the morning of October 28 in the Kremlin has received an appeal from the U.S., which proposed to resolve the conflict by peaceful means, with permission of the criteria was the first sentence of Khrushchev. According to unconfirmed reports verbally guaranteed and the elimination of missile system in Turkey. In just 3 weeks the USSR spent dismantling of nuclear installations, and on November 20 the blockade of the island was lifted. A few months later, the Americans dismantled missiles in Turkey.
The scariest moment of human history came in the twentieth century, but it was also the end of the period of the arms race. The two superpowers had to learn to find a compromise. Modern politicians often try to interpret the Cuban missile crisis as a result of the defeat or victory of the Union. From the perspective of the true creator of the article make a concrete conclusion in this case is impossible. Yes, Khrushchev was able to achieve the elimination of the U.S. base in Turkey, but the risk was very high. Prudence F. Kennedy, who was under pressure from the Pentagon of strongest, demanding wage war, do not calculate in advance. Samples conservation missile bases in Cuba could be disastrous not only for the Cubans, the Yankees and the Russian people, and kill the entire population of the earth.