Stories of unexplained failures of soil encountered here and there, long excite mankind. Underground car fail and people go garages, playgrounds and at home … Last soil collapse occurred in the Perm region in the station Berezniki where 25 November went underground railway carriage. The cause of this phenomenon, scientists have not yet found.
Recent collapse of the soil, made a lot of noise in the Perm region occurred at a railway station Berezniki. There Nov. 25 for an unknown reason formed sinkhole, which literally left rail car loaded with potassium fertilizers.
Initially, the size of sagging plot of ground was 50 to 30 feet, but in a short time, the area of failure increased to 100 meters wide and 40 meters long.
The reasons are set. It took scientists on a resume about a month. This forecast was voiced by the Minister of Natural Resources Yuri Trutnev.
For Russia, this incident is not the only one — the failures occur with surprising regularity in different regions. Thus, the observed subsidence in the southern Urals, near Lake collapse, Tuzluchnoe, Large Urban, Small Urban and Dunino located in Sol-Iletska. District Prosecutor's Office had to apply for a temporary ban on travelers to visit the famous salt lakes, whose properties resemble the waters of the Dead Sea. On their shores each year comes more than 500 thousand people from regions of Russia, as well as the near and far abroad.
In August this year in Barnaul parked car Toyota Ipsum failed An eighteen hole under it. In Kaliningrad, something similar happened in June.
Frequent failures and the Ukraine. In the town of Lugansk in 2008 on the road one of the main streets suddenly be 20-meter "funnel". Explanations have city officials have not been found. Around the same time in the city of Luhansk region Sukhodolsk vanished apartment located on the first floor of a two-story house, they carried off with them all their content to a depth of 1.5 meters. PE were similar in other cities where there are mines.
In the same period in Cherkassy underground failed "Lada", in which there were three. People were rescued. In the Ukrainian capital went to hell Mercedes E500 and Lexus 470, and whole sections of the road, as happened in the street Reserve near one of the plants.
But the biggest failure of the soil in the history of Ukraine in Dnipropetrovsk was the case in 1997, when the ground has left a nine-house! Overgrown crater swallowed as a kindergarten and a school located nearby, and three Khrushchev. Years later, in Dnipropetrovsk was back on pit road — a depth of 3 meters, and at the other end of the ground left the truck.
In 2010, a municipal market has failed in other Ukrainian cities — Krivoy Rog. The depth of the crater was about 20 meters. Witnesses say that the failure was formed in storage containers with goods.
June 13, 2010 at the mine in Krivoy Rog powerful sinkhole occurred on the area of 16 hectares — to a depth of 100 meters!
However, the most global and partial subsidence observed in China. Within six months of 2010 in different areas of China's generated several large holes in the ground. According to official data, the latest crater was formed on June 4 in the middle of freeway in Zhejiang Province, in the eastern part of the country. The size of the funnel — 6 meters deep and 8 meters wide. On the same day in the city of Nanchang, in the provincial capital of Jiangxi, a moving vehicle on the road suddenly fell into a hole nearly the size of a car itself, formed in the middle of highway.
June 3 four huge dip formed in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Three other, smaller in size, found on May 27-30 in the south-east of the country in an area where, in May 2008 there was an earthquake that killed nearly 80,000 people. In the city of Yibin, Sichuan Province from April 27 to 27 formed a large failure.
The largest landslide took place also in South Africa, particularly in Johannesburg in 1962, when the plant is fully buried and a house.
May 11, 2010 in Quebec, Canada, in the town of St. Jude, for some unknown reason in the ground formed a huge crater the size of a football field, which disappeared 4 people. Under the ground completely gone their farmstead — house, garage and cars. Large collapse occurred in Poland. In a number of places in the ground formed mammoth failures, which left houses and farm buildings.
June 1, 2010 in Guatemala in place a three-storey factory building appeared perfectly round hole with a diameter of 20 meters and a depth of over 50 meters. The reasons for its occurrence are still unknown.
Not left out, and Moscow, where from time to time through the earth fail cars. For example, in 2007 in the Leningrad highway collapsed asphalt, resulting in a hole down Kamaz with the compressor. It was followed by a case on Queen Street: the bottom of the pit slid jeep parked nearby.
In 2010, frequent dips in Moscow. At the intersection of the streets of Baku and the Caspian formed pit depth of 1.5 meters, on the Star Boulevard near the house 38 Bldg. One formed hole diameter of 2 meters and a depth of 1 meter, which failed parked "gazelle." Also ground to sink at the intersection of streets and Nikoloyamskaya Small wood-lane, creating a pit measuring 2.5 by 1.5 meters and a depth of 60 centimeters.
Was marked by similar failures and the past year. Geography major failures of ground in the capital was as follows: aboutezzhaya part of the prospectus Budennogo 150 meters from the road enthusiasts (sizes dip 1.5 by 1.5 meters, the depth of 1 meter), street Krylatsky Hill (area of failure was 20 square meters, depth — 2.5 meters) into the resulting pit collapsed two parked cars, Toyota and Volkswagen; Volokolamsk Highway — land subsidence in the area of about 30 square meters).
In 2008, in the west of Moscow underground was a playground. In 2007, I hasten to a fire tanker fell into a hole in the street Gen. Glagoleva: a hole the size of 2 to 2.5 meters was formed under it for a second.
Such cases each year tens of Moscow.
So what is this "black hole"? Consequences of human "transformational" activities or still infuriated nature? And maybe do the signs of the coming Armageddon 2012?
Scientists tend to give an explanation based on facts and research. They suspect that the main culprit of "black holes" — groundwater. This is especially true of karst rocks, most of which are readily soluble and wash water flowing substance. Karst abyss can reach depths of more than 1.5 kilometers. Are understandable and failures in those areas where there are private production (although the site should be in the vicinity of the mine).
But despite the healthy skepticism, scientists are unlikely to result in compelling evidence that is happening is not interfering supernatural. Perhaps, in the universe there is a relationship of all with all, and the earth — a living organism capable of human revenge for the destruction and chaos generated by it. After the notorious Tartarus, in the depths of a dark abyss of the earth, arose out of chaos. The current chaos created by man.
It is clear that for each of the above cases we must be approached from different points of view and explain them in different ways. But the guilt of man is that he correctly uses bowels of the earth, does not exclude any of the scientists. This is further confirmed Professor of Soil Science Department agroinformatiki, Sc.D. Catherine Pakhnenko In an exclusive interview "with Pravda.ru."
— The case of the station Bereznyaki Perm, when the car failed, and cases in Moscow and St. Petersburg in recent — are two different things. In birch produces potassium, voids are formed in the soil are filled with water, and there is a failure. And there has long chosen salt, is the technology on which it is actively used to make fertilizer. Such failures — a consequence of disordered extraction.
— In the Soviet period, or is only in recent years?
— No, it was not like this before. This is a consequence of operational errors, even errors, and deliberate withdrawal more than he can give a deposit. The field is very intense, as there is a huge sale of raw materials abroad. Previously, priority was the development of technology, and now — "the expansion of distribution network, global presence, improving quality control, the use of the Internet, the maximum level of service" — this is now the task of mining companies. And the environment is at the bottom, I read their prospectus.
Dips In Moscow and St. Petersburg are associated with disordered construction. In order to build, you first need not buy the land, and examine related to soil science, with the ability to subsidence, to determine the presence of voids that can be filled with water or gas. So, in fact, supposed to do.
But construction expertise recently abolished. But it allowed the soil to determine the stability of the pressure of water resistance. Soil, in my opinion, has ceased to exist first. Now, guided by the principle — I want to build.
And it is redistribution of groundwater, the deeper groundwater and surface water, they walk.
— Examination of all before allowed to take into account?
— Certainly. And cases occurring failures — the consequences of disordered construction with no examination of the soil.
And soil has nothing to do with it, because the soil can be meter and a half, and two feet. A subterranean layers of folded sedimentary rocks, which are represented by clay, sand, small stones, debris.
Here's another interesting fact. I was recently asked why in some places near such Odintsovo, a very strange development of the trees — instead of a multi-stemmed trunk. This effect gives the most lime or American maple. Instead of a tree grow shaggy bushes. This plant growth due to the fact that these areas are so-called buried soils. These areas were previously in agricultural use. And when they began to get used to the top metropolis were building soil, and good soil — have remained at the bottom. That's why everything grows slowly at first, and then begins the vast sprawl, which require care and removal.