The fact that the Chinese tea first came to Russia (it was in the first half of the seventeenth century, it is the beginning of tea and coffee global expansion), but as foreign goods cost a lot of money, the alternative to it in Russia was obvious! The alternative of course was the "Fireweed" that the Russian "chaevniki" brewed and drank back in the twelfth century!
Brewed "Fireweed" in such a way that it has come to resemble taste and color subtropical tea. Produced it: the leaves 'Ivan-tea' dried, scalded with boiling water in the tub, triturated in a trough, and then leans back on the baking trays and dried in a Russian stove. After drying, the leaves are crushed again and tea was ready.
Most of the tea harvest in Koporie village near St. Petersburg. And therefore became known as a drink, and later he "Fireweed" Koporskiji tea. Hundred pounds of this product used in Russia.
He later became an important component in Russian exports. After special treatment, "Fireweed" sent by sea to England and other European countries, where it is also replaced, as Persian rugs, Chinese silk damask. Abroad "Fireweed" called RUSSIAN TEA!
Before leaving on a long journey, the Russian sailors always carried a "Fireweed" to drink themselves. And as gifts to foreign ports.
However, there were unscrupulous merchants who used the "Fireweed" for counterfeit Chinese (Beijing) tea. They are mixed into the Chinese tea leaves "Ivan-tea" and were given the mixture of expensive oriental wonder. But I must say that in pre-revolutionary Russia, and after the revolution of 1941 to add to the subtropical teas of other plants considered shameless falsification, fraud and illegal. Therefore, these merchants often incriminating in such nefarious deeds and put on trial, sometimes even arranging loud trials.
However, even such cases could deprive Koporskiji tea popularity and in the XIX century it was strong competition Indian tea.
Britain, which owned HUGE tea plantations in India, bought tens of thousands of pounds every year Koporsky tea, preferring Indian — RUSSIAN TEA!
So why, in Russia has stopped production as a profitable Koporsky tea? The fact is that at the end of XIX century, its popularity was so great (Beware that was undermined by the financial power of the East India Tea campaign that sold Indian tea! Campaign inflated scandal allegedly fray Russian tea with white clay, and she supposedly unhealthy. But the real reason is that the owners of the East India campaign had to remove from its own market of powerful England KONKURENKTA — RUSSIAN TEA!.
(This is the same-the East India Company which is hoisted on opium across Southeast Asia.)
The company achieved its still been reduced purchase Russian tea, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917, when Britain joined the military bloc "Entente" purchase of tea in Russia stops completely. Koporie ruined.
But the beginning NEW TIME!
Just recently, people are reminded of this medicinal drink. After a long break made on old recipes, and took with him to the round the world regatta sailors "Krusenstern". The famous traveler single F.Konyuhov always in all my travels uses this healing "Ivan-tea!"
Wrong Side of coffee vigor
In the near future you need to enter "Fireweed" in human food, eliminating or at the first stage to limit consumption of subtropical teas and coffee, where there is an excess of caffeine, which for the Russian people can be applied is very limited.
Another Academician IP Pavlov found that caffeine increases the processes in the cerebral cortex and increases motor activity. However, large doses it can lead to a depletion of nerve cells. Alkaloids of tea enhance cardiac function. Reduction of myocardial become more intense and frequent. Thanks to all the organs and tissues receives more blood and they get proper food. As a result, people feel a surge of strength HOWEVER, it improves mood, sharpens the senses.
However, such rises spirit naturally accompanied by an increase of energy consumption, which is not compensated by tea, because, although the chemical composition of this plant is rich, the person to be normal activity 2-3 times more.
BUT … Caffeine, like other stimulants of the central nervous system and not suitable for high anxiety, insomnia, severe hypertension and atherosclerosis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, and simply old age.
The mechanism of action of caffeine plays an important role that it inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase. While inside the cells accumulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate, under whose influence the metabolic processes are enhanced in various organs and tissues, including muscle tissue, and in the central nervous system. But a paper cup of tea or coffee is not considered to be at a distance doping.
Simultaneously, caffeine binds to brain receptors, displacing adenosine, which normally reduces the processes in the brain. Replacing it with caffeine leads to a stimulating effect.
However, long-term use of this alkaloid, as well as other drugs, its effect is gradually reduced.
And from the colored boiling water is often transferred to a cup of this tea (a teaspoon of tea leaves at 0.15-0.2 liters of boiling water) to wash down in three stages at intervals of 1.5-2 minutes. Then a morning cup of full-time, and then a third, because in the absence of caffeine, adenosine has accumulated all available receptors in the brain, dramatically increasing the braking process, there are fatigue, sleepiness, depression, lower blood pressure and have other unpleasant sensations.
Besides tannins in tea, and their 18% (the higher the grade, the more of them) relate the insoluble compounds and is removed from the digestive calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, metal salts of copper, zinc, nickel, and other minerals. That's why in the East tea drink one hour before meals or two hours after a meal, and without any spices and sweets, which stimulate the release of saliva contains a lot of calcium and other digestive environment, rich in vitamins and enzymes.
.. A blooming "Fireweed" from mid-June to late August. Hardy plant from 6 to 7 am, attracting a lot of bees. This is not surprising, because "Fireweed" is one of the best plants honey plants. It is estimated that a hectare "Kipreynogo" land bees can store up to a thousand pounds of honey. By the way, honey kipreyny allegedly connoisseurs most sweet, and if fresh honey — the most transparent. In addition to nectar, the bees removed from the flowers "Ivan-tea" its bread-and-ambrosia.
Seeds "Ivan tea" ripen in August. Mature seeds of the fruit fly's down-boxes. Above thickets "Ivan-tea" and flies away around down — as if ripped several quilts. Seeds "Ivan tea" a remarkable volatility — the wind carries them for tens of kilometers. As a medicinal plant use flowers, leaves, roots less "Ivan-tea."
Collection conducted during flowering (usually leaves and buds unblown they prepare separately).
flavonoids (quercetin, kemferol, has antispasmodic choleretic and diuretic effect);
tannins (up to 20% of tanning pirogalovoy astringent and anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effect);
mucus (up to 15%, which provides demulcent and cathartic properties, the ability to reduce inflammation, reduces pain, soothes and relieves cramps);
a small amount of alkaloids (these substances are toxic in large doses, but in small have remarkable healing properties, can improve metabolism, blood circulation, the nervous system are good analgesic);
chlorophyll (the green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy stimulates wound healing, improves metabolism);
pectin (the substance increases the shelf life of tea).
The leaves are present vitamins, especially a lot of carotene (provitamin A) and vitamin C (up to 200-388mg — 3 times more than oranges).
The roots are rich in starch (this reserve carbohydrate of plants), polysaccharides (these carbohydrates are involved in immune reactions), organic acids (involved in biochemical reactions., Play an important role in maintaining the acid-alkaline balance).
In addition, the leaves of 'Ivan Tea "found a large number of trace elements stimulate hematopoiesis — iron, copper, manganese and other trace elements required for metabolism — nickel, titanium, molybdenum, boron.
This set of trace elements can not boast of any one plant!
The unique composition defines the variety of healing properties, "Ivan-tea." This is a mild laxative, emollient, enveloping, ranozalshvlyayuschee, analgesic, anticonvulsant effect. According to its anti-inflammatory properties, "Fireweed" is superior to all medicinal plants — scientifically proven that it has the highest rate of plant anti-inflammatory action! And in its tranquilizing effect (soothing, reduces feelings of tension, anxiety., Fear)
In folk medicine, "Fireweed" has long been regarded as an antitumor agent. And scientific studies have confirmed the long experience herbalists of inflorescences "Ivan-tea" was allocated hanerol high-molecular compound that exhibits anti-tumor activity, has a relatively low toxicity and a wide range of effects on the tumor.
To summarize, "Fireweed" presents us with you —
Prevention of malignant and benign tumors;
Increases the potency;
Effective in diseases of the genitourinary system (powerful prevention prostitita)
Rumen of gastric and duodenal ulcers;
Increased immunity to respiratory viral infections;
Prevention of dental caries;
Reduces the toxicity of the organism;
Removes food and alcohol poisoning;
Recuperate for exhaustion;
With stones in the liver, kidneys and diseases of the spleen;
Strengthens hair roots;
Vitamin "C" in "Ivan tea" is 6.5 times more than the lemon;
Eliminates the headache;
Normalizes the blood pressure!
Detailed recipe for black tea leaves of wild strawberry, willow-herb, etc. given here, under forest drinks
Verzilin "Following Robinson" is a wonderful book! http://dekko.narod.ru/verzilin_toc.htm
Beginning in 1956, the book gradually removed illustrations, replacing practical drawings — entertainment. Gradually changed and text. The publication in 1994 have no whole chapters have practical value — to build a hut, the baking of bread, the harvesting of herbs on the production of natural mattresses and blankets …
Withering: leaves scatter a layer no thicker than 5 centimeters a day or night, until they shall become lethargic, and their need to stir occasionally, not allowing the leaves to dry out the top layer and the edges.
Curl: leaves are rolled between the palms of your hands into the small spindly sausages polsosiski about the size as long as they do not darken from speaking juice.
Fermentation: twisted leaves are placed in a 5 cm layer in an enamel bowl or tray, hide a wet cloth and put in a warm place (24-27oS) for 6-12 hours to mature. The higher the temperature, the fermentation process is faster, the end of the process is characterized by changes in the grassy smell rich floral and fruity. Dangerous temperature is too high and overexposure — Cyprus gets low grade smell perekipyachennogo "obschepitovskogo" tea.
Drying: The fermented leaves finely cut, spread on the screens or the opposite, the laid parchment layer of 1-1.5 cm and dried at 100 ° C for about an hour, checking readiness to touch. Well dried tea is the color of the black tea, rich and slightly stronger than him, aroma, while squeezing the tea leaves are broken, but not crumble to dust. When this condition will reach the majority of tea reduces the drying temperature, and traction, moderate during the drying process, is increasing dramatically. At too high a temperature, and over-exposure of tea in the dryer in the bouquet appears admixture odor "dry paper."
Storage: like real tea, Koporskiji requires close packing of storage — the best in glass jars with plastic lids. Marketable condition Koporskiji tea reaches approximately one month of storage, and further its properties, like this tea, even more improved. Dried flowers also make great drink.
How to dry the leaves of willow-herb
English name angustifolium fireweed or willow-herb — Fireweed-means "weed fires." On land devastated by fire, this plant comes first, preparing the conditions for settlement in the future of other plants. Fireweed has a flying seeds and quickly colonizes areas with disturbed vegetation; polyhane pink flowers willow-can be seen in vacant lots, in gardens and villages, clearings, on the fringes of the forest.
Willow-herb recipe by Dmitry Samuseva
Still living in Belarus, I noticed the name of the plant and tried it just to dry and brew. Nonsense get: hay hay.
Several times tried something else. Then I learned about fermentation, but did not know what it is.
Already arrived to the land in the spring and saw the young shoots of the plant, I again want to discover the secret of tea and a cup of normal domestic beverage. Succeeded. Figured out the secret.
It's simple. Plant itself contains everything needed for fermentation. It is his own juices and enzymes. If leaf crumple in hand, the part of cells to burst, let the plant juice. In wet crumpled leaves will contain vitamins, nutrients and intracellular enzymes. These enzymes, leaving the vacuoles are beginning to alter the biochemical composition of plants. This how-to self-digestion. Leaves with several dark, there is another, pleasant zakpah. To do this, the fermentation process I leave crumpled leaves chopped fine in a nonmetallic container under the yoke (with a decrease in contact with the air and the metal retains vitamins) for 1-2 days at room temperature. If you hold for longer — like cabbage fermented tea.
In agriculture, there is something similar in silage hay when grass clippings are collected in herds and it turns sour by its own enzymes. Lactic acid is formed naturally preserves the grass. I wrote to the fact that the fermentation can be subjected to any medicinal wild plants and on the basis of the process to prepare an infinite number of teas. The taste and smell of herbs and fermented svezhevysushennyh markedly different. In teas can add flower petals, dried berries, fruit …
So, after fermentation, the leaf is laid out on a cast-iron pan on very low heat "tomish" within forty minutes. It's warming up to the hot state is needed to speed fermentation, in which part of the insoluble non-extractable substances of plant tissue become soluble and digestible. These are the substances that give the taste, smell and color of the tea.
After forty minutes of anguish and turn on medium heat, stirring constantly with a wooden spatula, bring sheet to dry. Neat! Do not burn it. And then the tea will be singed.
In appearance — this is the usual large leaf black tea, but with a nice a smell. When brewing Fireweed gives a good color and a pleasant smell, while increasing the dosage gets intense color and astringency, like usual tea.
What is interesting, the tea leaves of willow-herb does not stain tooth enamel, and generally well-done willowherb more tasty Indian or Ceylon. By property drink willow-occupies an intermediate position between black and green on the strength and healing. And if you add in the tea flowers, dried berries and fruits, the prices it will not be!
And that's it, "pasture", the gift of mother nature, eco-friendly product made fortified himself with his hands to the delight and surprise to the neighbors.
So, are the young shoots of willow-herb (can be flowers, but with the colors I have not experimented, I do not know), chopped leaves, good Mnemonic their hands to green mass was slightly damp, place in a bowl under oppression for a day or two at room temperature.
Then heat the pan with the lid on at a low heat for 40 minutes. And, finally, dried paste on medium heat stirring constantly. Fireweed, aka Kaporsky tea is ready! Enjoy your tea.
Clear guidelines for collecting willow-
If you noticed the tea plantation of willow in the spring, around the beginning of May, although in different places may have different deadlines, tear off the tops of the young shoots, of which you get a premium Kaporsky tea. A cropped shoots begin the bushes, and the beginning of flowering, the leaves on the plants will be much more than usual.