Those who emphasize the heroism overlooked that the heroism of some — often a consequence of other nonsense. So, in 1237, Prince of Ryazan own entourage went to the field to meet Batu spotless, there really is, and then the battle was not just beating the heroic army of Ryazan. A battle on the Kalka, when almost 90000th Russian army met 30000th Mongol army, half the Russian army was broken, and zero sense. So the stories of Dmitry Donskoy played a huge role not his personal heroism and bravery of the Russian army, and, above all, a strategic genius and talent Dmitri, who won the battle before it began.
As throughout history no matter what army, especially defending, tried to stand on the heights. Defend a hill, especially against cavalry troops, always more convenient. Prince Kulikovskoe first came on the field, but did not take the height, left her mom. Mom took this "victim" and had already lost the battle. It's amazing that such an experienced military commander not thought about it, why he was given the high ground. Dmitry did this so that my mother saw it, and was sure that sees. And he did not see the main things: the ravines before Russian right flank, ambush regiment, covered with forests, did not realize the asymmetry and helplessness flanks of the Russian ratification.
The effect of good shelf
First time in the history of the regiment before the head Dmitry Donskoy put a bit ahead of the regiment advanced, very confusing at first glance the protection of 3-5 thousand people. What is the role he had to do? It was not worth it to attach to the head?
In order to realize this, you can refer to a circus number. The essence of it in the future: the hero hammer pounding on the stone that cracks or breaks under attack. Dale put a man on the table and cover a narrow stone slab, the same striker now pounding on the plate, it shatters into pieces, and the person gets out of it unharmed. At the moment of impact plate moderately distributes the force of impact across their own area. Instead of a powerful blow to the man passed only some even pressure.
Dmitry thought of as a swift kick to reincarnate Tatar cavalry in everyday ease the pressure on the center of the Russian troops, without disturbing its structure, we do not know. But we have to admit, he has applied this technique is very skillfully.
Mother — ally Dmitri?
Mamaj thought that with the mound, he sees everything. And he clearly beheld that the weakest flank of the Russian army — right. He was lean and stretched out on a sufficiently large distance. In the center stood in front of the bulk of the Russian forces: the front, the head and the spare shelves.
Battle Plan was born by itself: the right flank and break out in the rear of the main Russian forces to surround them, to bring panic in the ranks and kill. And my mom was first sent his cavalry regiment on the right hand. Here, faced with the first "gift", which he had prepared Dmitry. Before the positions of Russian troops was two series of ravines, which simply could not be seen from the hillock. Moreover, even the cavalry saw gullies, only once before them tightly.
Multi-million dollar mass of cavalry broad front on a solid rate of flies into a ravine. Rear cavalry pushing on the front, you can not step aside — is the coming of a broad front. Even before the collision with the Russian Tatars bear the loss. Instead of a quick raid cavalry slowly progressing to the second row … ravines.
And this is a small victory. Cavalrymen first descend into the ravine, and then slowly rise up one of him and run across the princely order, who relaxed by one, methodically beating these emerging riders. Mamaia is a huge army of loss, killed his best warriors of disappears pace attack. After 1-2 hours of such beatings Mamaj perceives the second point of the plan Dmitry Donskoy "bogged down" in the critical mass in the center of the Russian troops.
The trick Prince
After none of the historians, not really able to explain why the prince before the battle dressed in armor conventional war, and its own flag and coat nobleman gave Misha Brenk. But it was one of those moments, which then led to the first turning point in the battle: balance the forces in the center and a loss here Tatars offensive rush.
Prince knew the Horde army, methods of battle and military leaders of the enemy. He was sure that the tactical offensive outburst, each commander will be focused on him, the Russian leader, on his banner. Specifically, as it happened, Tatars, regardless of losses, were cut to the flag, and to suspend their impulse was unreal, nobles hacked and brought down the flag.
Historically, the loss of the commander and the flag, death or escape led to mental turning point, after which followed the defeat of the army. Then came a different, Tatars were paralyzed. Thinking that they killed the commander of the victorious cries from afar, many did not even chopped, their head was extinguished. But Russian and wondered stop fight, they knew that the Tatars were wrong!
Equipping the troops
Let's go back to the forward shelf. He took over most first and most terrible blow Tatar cavalry, but that does not mean that all his fighters were doomed to death. Hiking warriors can counter cavalry. For example, you can put a "wall" of copies. Several rows of vigilantes armed with spears of varying lengths (from the front they are shorter at the back — long) which terminate at a similar distance down the line. In such a case coming trooper meets more than one spear, which he can reject or cut the shield, and immediately stumbles at 3-4 and one of them can reach their own tseli.Otlichno protected and the body of warriors. So called "blue armor" squads of stateliness Ustiuga not inferior in quality armor Genoese knights who fought on the side of the Horde.
The prince himself during the battle was not even hurt, though fought in the front ranks of the army. And it is not only in the skill and strength of Dmitry Donskoy. The enemy could not hit him when took out the sword or spear. His coat of mail was forged from the best metal. Were planted on top of chain mail armor made of iron plates, and on top of all this mail to disguise ordinary warriors. His chopped, stabbed, thrashed, but no one was able to cut through all three layers of his armor.
But any punches — it blows. Helmet Prince was dented in several places by the end of the battle, Dmitry was able to deep contusion, maybe it has become a prerequisite for its of early death at the age of 39 years. But with all this, not a single Russian soldier is not beheld, that the prince came with blood, that of mental defeat, he has not p
resented the Tatars.
The battle is already 4-5 hours. Mamaj sees that in the center — a dead end, there is the wall between the living from the dead, triggered critical mass, Mamaj sees it with a mound and gives the order to move kick on the left flank. And even looking at the apathy factor, the Tartars are coming for several hours, and people are tired, and stallions, their head is strong as ever. Affects the numerical advantage, and regiment left hand begins to move away backwards, to cave in under the pressure of the Tartars, to retreat to the oak grove. Numerical advantage on the side of the attacking, so it seems mom and mound, he does not see ambush regiment of the oak grove.
But particularly noticeable on how to fade further and further back the Russian shelf, as there is a hole into which you can throw around and Russian troops left, hit them in the rear. And my mom admits his last mistake. Forwards to break all its available reserves at hand. The regiment left hand dropped, Tatars rush forward, accumulate and deployed to attack the flank and rear of the central regiments, leaving open the rear for the ambush regiment. Plan of Prince absolutely failed, Tatars are turning to the rear of the main shock force Russian troops. Beat the freshest ambush regiment of cavalry was fatal for the Tatars. Mamaia army becomes uncontrolled flight.