Command of the Wehrmacht on the plan, the combined group of German troops of up to 900 thousand troops with air support and armored units had to encircle the Central and Voronezh fronts under KKRokossovsky and N.F.Vatutina respectively. For an attack by Hitler's troops were elected three main areas that were formed to reincarnate territorial arc in the most realistic boiler capable of absorbing up to 1.3 million Russian soldiers. These directions are followed properly looked: Olhovatsky direction gniletskoe and Maloarkhangelsk. The ultimate goal — joining the northern and southern areas in particular proximity to the Kursk and the defeat of the Red Army.
But all of these awesome plans, which participated in the preparation of Hitler himself, as we all well know, is not destiny was realized. Complete defeat of German forces in the greatest battle of Kursk was a lot of circumstances, most of which, of course, is the exorbitant courage and heroism of the Russian soldier, a thorough analysis of operational-tactical situation at the front of the high command.
But this victory was a blacksmith, and more, at least one person whose name is a long time remained in the annals of history, what, seven locks. This man's name was John Cairncross. Scot by birth, he has lived a long life, a part of which is intended to own personal struggle with the brown plague, which was able to plunge the entire world into a beautiful chaos. Cairncross, call one of the numbers of those who forged the victory over the Russian Union of Nazi Germany. And in addition, it was fixed for the very highest rank of the most effective spy second world war. And our great fortune that this spy working for the Soviet side.
It would seem that may be common in the English-educated young man with success is a Cambridge college and Russian Union which not a lot of what was out thousands of miles from his native Scotland, as also most of the people of the Soviet Union professed far wrong ideology, which was adopted by the English crown in the middle of the subjects …
But Cairncross was not so, as most of his fellow citizens. The fact is that even during his own training at the Cambridge Institute for Cairncross became interested in communist thought, and in 1937 joined the Communist Party of England. Specifically, at the time and began to form a prince then "Cambridge Five", which apart from the John Cairncross included four other high-level spy: Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, Anthony Blunt and Kim Philby.
Without exception, the Russian special agents who had the honor to work with Cairncross, already many years after the war, said that the Englishman did for the Russian Union of so many that it would be naming the full name of the street in the towns of Union and put the monuments. But what are all the same services Cairncross, and how is it fundamentally different from many other agents working in the war against the USSR?
The fact is that, thanks to his own education, he, like other members of the "Cambridge Five" had the right to work specifically in the British mandatory system. Namely, Cairncross has worked in the English Foreign Ministry, also MI6, where he was entrusted with the Holy of Holies — the place in which housed the German cipher machine "Enigma". The place is called by Bletchley Park. During the second World is here that there was a top secret laboratory, which was conducted in the transcript of disk imaging, used for strategic planning of military operations, and specifically German generals Hitler.
Access to the "Enigma" at Bletchley Park was so selective that apart from the Cairncross, from which Russian intelligence was given the code name "Moliere" in honor of his special love for creativity French writer, go to the room that housed this encryption and decryption monster ( it's "Enigma"), were allowed less than half a dozen people.
As you can understand, to be at work in such laboratories could only truly great man. People who become candidates to work at Bletchley Park, passed the strict selection. They must have been amazing languages, their should have been a perfectly logical thinking (logic verification was carried out in the candidate chess duels with the best of British chess since then). In addition, these people were well versed in the technique and the use of cryptography. With all the requirements of a candidate Cairncross, everything was just amazing, not including technical podkovannosti. One of the Russian agents in Britain knows that when Cairncross was decided to buy a car, that he may keep up to meetings for the transfer disk imaging fit, that a couple of times could not pass the exam to receive a driver's license, and even when Cairncross Law was then driven a car so that it can be to wait for anything, just not confident driving techno … But this uncertainty, surprisingly, is not served as a barrier in order to Cairncross ("Moliere") was at Bletchley Park, where entrusted to him and decrypt German coded materials.
During this time he has worked intensively with the Russian intelligence service, and through a network of agents transmit the decoded information to Moscow.
A few months before the Battle of Kursk, John Cairncross passes Moscow Extremely urgent information that German manufacturing plant (plant of "Henschel") released a new, updated version of the tank "Tiger" which had a phenomenal at the time armor and weighing nearly 57 tons. Although the first "Tigers" were applied Germans in August 1942 near Leningrad, but their improved versions are planned as a significant counter-forces of the Red Army in the Battle of Kursk specifically. For information about the upgraded tanks "Tiger", acquired from Bletchley Park, have allowed to give orde
rs to create weapons capable of hitting these German cars. At Russian factories began to create armor-piercing shells, which could reveal the seemingly invincible armor "Tigers". Modernized and Russian tanks.
By the way, I must say that both of the Battle of Kursk before the information from Cairncross in Moscow is not a lot to know. Specifically, "Moliere", due to acquired and decrypted through the "Enigma" data, said not only clear the date and time of the German counter-offensive, and the coordinates of the location of any and all basic Luftwaffe airfields in the area, adjacent to the Kursk-Orel territorial ledge. An accuracy of information in Cairncross Russian The Alliance was amazing. Had this information neatly dispose of, and that was made by the Russian command.
At the time when Hitler's generals were just preparing to give an order to the coming on three fronts, the artillery of the Red Army unleashed on the real enemy barrage of artillery guns and rocket launchers. This pre-emptive strike brought the Nazi troops in some stupor, followed by the Germans rushed to storm what is called, blind, which earlier moment in the history of the Wehrmacht on this scale has never happened before. In addition, Russian pilots in their own beautiful winged machines "walked" on those airfields that were specified in the intelligence of "Moliere," which is not allowed many German aircraft even climb into the sky. It was a typical Soviet rematch for the destroyed Russian aircraft on the ground in the first days of the war.
Much has been surprised by the Nazis during time large-scale tank battle at Prokhorovka, when all of a sudden found themselves that the armor of the "invincible" "Tigers" without much difficulty breaks Russian missiles. At that moment, and no one could imagine that this armor breaks, including and through graduate of Cambridge Institute John Cairncross …
Cairncross died in 1995, and during the second half of his life not once was attacked by the British authorities and the press for being in his time collaborated extensively with the Russian Union. Apparently, critics Cairncross specifically its cooperation with the USSR KGB, eclipsed both overshadows an invaluable contribution to the cause of this man's common struggle against fascism …