About megalithic structures Peru You can talk endlessly. Each year new expedition inquisitive traveler goes there to see with my own eyes the huge megaliths, which are composed of ancient structures of the region. I casually mentioned nothing about Ollantaytambo, but decided to mention this subject more seriously. The article and educational film is waiting for you ahead.
40 km northwest of Cuzco is Ollantaytambo — another very remarkable monument of Indian architecture. "Tambo" (in Quechua — "Tampa") means "post office." The Incas, like any other empire of antiquity, to establish a system of road communications, had a network of Tampa, located on the road at a distance of 12-18 km from each other. Tampa were public institutions and their most important function was to support the king's messengers — Chaska, which provide an effective exchange of information in the Inca Empire. However tampu often grew into large settlements, and even cities. So was Ollantaytambo. The city is located in the upper Urubamba at an altitude of 3500 m above sea level at the beginning of the so-called Sacred Valley of the Incas, which led to Machu Picchu. So far, the monument is preserved very well. The modern village is built on the foundations of Inca houses and kept up-Spanish layout of the streets.
But it is not the main attraction of Ollantaytambo. Near the settlement of a high rocky ledge near the mountain is a temple complex. It is also called a fortress, though he is not. The Incas did not build ukrplennyh settlements, ie enclosed by a defensive wall with towers and bastions. While living in the hill country, they used hard hills, cliffs and slopes for a device of its key points.
Ollantaytambo is located just on such a rocky promontory overlooking the valley at a height of about 60 meters to the summit is only a narrow stone staircase, which stretches from the side of stage 17 of the agricultural terraces. The Spaniards once in 1536, tried to capture the Ollantaytambo, but to no avail. Troop Hernando Pizarro was forced to retreat in haste, barely escaping death.
At the top of the cliff lie the remains of cyclopean buildings, which for no good reason is called the Temple of the Sun. This building is destroyed, well preserved, only the front wall, composed of six huge monoliths of pink porphyry. Monoliths have a height of 4 meters. Details of each of them is about 20-25 tonnes. Moreover, these units are not just docked with each other, squeezed in between the blocks are made of the same material inserts narrow width 25 cm why use such a technological method? After all, other samples of Peruvian masonry does not have a similar architectural solutions, but still demonstrate great skill of the ancient architects. Blocks Ollantaytambo also adjusted to each other with such an accuracy that can not stick between not that blade, and even paper.
It is believed that the temple complex of Ollantaytambo Incas started building before the Spanish invasion and conquest prevented finish the construction. One example of this — a few dozen blocks of granite weighing 10 tons or more scattered on top of the hill, at the foot and on the road leading to the quarry. These monoliths are referred to as "tired stones". Granite quarries, where they cut down the blocks are on the other side of the valley, at a distance of several kilometers, assuming a straight line. Quarries lie on the steep, about 50 °, the slope of the mountain at an altitude of about 900 meters above the valley. There is a logical series of questions: how the Indians could pull on such a slope multi-ton blocks, and then send them through the rough mountain river Urubamba (the width of it here — about 50 m), drag a few kilometers along the valley and up the same steep slope to a height of 60 m ? It is believed that the Indians for such work used wooden rollers and ropes. But common sense to cast doubt on the possibility of carrying out such work. In the illustrated book Guamana Poma is a diagram showing where the Indians are dragging on the ropes stone boulder. However, no rollers are not represented and the image size is not a giant stone.
Garsilyaso de la Vega in his chronicle gives the following fact: one of the rulers of the Inca decided to take to the construction site of one of the "tired stones". For this, he sent an 20,000 Indians, who dragged him on the ropes. At one point over the cliff rock fell and crushed more than three thousand people. It is hardly necessary to pay special attention to the figures, the Spanish chroniclers often sinned exaggeration when it came to the Indians. But this fact, first of all indicates that Inca were not able to construct such that the structure, but even to deliver to the building site such blocks.
In Ollantaytambo "tired stones" is based not only on the road leading to the quarries, but also in the village in the opposite direction from the quarries. And it shows that they were not thrown along the way, but rather are the result of the destruction of the ancient temple. The Incas, who came here last, were not even able to move the monoliths and have therefore left them where they lay.
No less a mystery and is the "polygonal" technology giant masonry blocks. How are stacked monoliths weighing dozens of tons so artfully cut corners and grooves on the adjacent blocks into each other as part of children's designer? There is a hypothesis based, however, only on the Indian legends, that ancient Peruvians were able to soften the granite with plant juices to the state of clay. Later, the stone surface froze and acquired the original property.
And one more interesting fact. In the Peruvian Cyclopean masonry buildings are blocks that have one or two trapezoidal protrusion. Their functionality is not clear. Most units do not have such projections. Such a technological method (granite block with the tabs) is found only in Peru than one place on the planet. Namely, in facing the great pyramids of the Giza plateau. How can you explain the presence of such a specific architectural element in two such distant in time and space civilizations?
Watch Ollantaytambo — witness not only to the Flood