Russian inscription on the sundial of Nabataean Hegre

Fig.  1 Sundial of Hegre (Museum of the Ancient Orient, Istanbul) [4]

Fig. 1
Sundial from Hegre (Museum of the Ancient Orient, Istanbul) [4]

 

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Thanks to the internet information in the new millennium has moved to another level of quality — it has ceased in many areas of the domain of the elite. In science, these "elected" were archivists, historians, epigraphists with access to libraries and archives to the museum's storerooms. Perhaps, therefore, much remains beyond their specific research. Data about artifacts that archaeologists learned a long time ago and is a true sensation, artifacts that have not been properly assessed during their direct detection, it is now possible to find on foreign websites. And these artifacts begin to "speak", but our task is not to ignore their call. E. Klassen wrote in 1854: "Monuments to abide forever irrefutable evidence: they tell us about the actions of our ancestors in our native language, make up the prototype of all the Slavic dialects that merge into it, as in general its source" [1].

All of this relates to the discovery, which was made at the beginning of the last century (1910-1919 gg.), The construction of the Hejaz Railway Damascus-Medina, held near the settlement of Madain Saleh (the ancient name of Hegre) in Saudi Arabia. Finding this — stone sundial, which scientists refer to the period of the Nabatean kingdom [2]. This is one of the few artifacts that were found in this place, because the systematic excavation was conducted. At present, these sundials are stored in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, the collection of the Museum of the Ancient Orient under accession number 7664 (Fig. 1).

Hejaz Railway, built in 1908 (extends 1,300 km, including 740 km of Hijaz), provided an opportunity to learn about the people of Neolithic settlements in the area. Before the Nabataeans lived in Hegre lihianity. The expansion of the Nabataeans to the Sinai Peninsula began in the 3rd century. BC However, they used existing since the ancient time the caravan routes across the mountains and plains. In the way of such a caravan route in the Sinai found huts Neolithic settlement, antiquity four thousand BC — Round in terms of construction of stone with entrances oriented to the setting sun. The same ancient building opened in Hegre. However, excavations are still in the beginning, because the archaeological expedition of French archaeologists with Arab scholars will continue until 2012, and detailed studies are being prepared for publication.

Much better Hegre currently investigated Petra — Nabataeans capital city. However, writes in his book "Peter and the lost kingdom of the Nabataeans" by J. Taylor [3], The inscriptions on the tombs in Petra are few, far more of them are in Hegre: "Hidden in the sand in the center of Hegre, still lie undiscovered remains of houses, temples, streets, market squares, civil and military buildings that were once part of the settlement. Wells are still visible everywhere, provided water for residents and passing caravans. Something about their daily lives and on the measurement of the light of the day can be found by looking at the Nabataean sundial made of local sandstone, which were discovered here … "[3155, translated authors].

Facades of eighty Hegre 37 have inscriptions and in 33 of them have a date — between 1. BC to 74 AD Made these inscriptions in Aramaic, and point to the tombs belonging to the owners, appeal to the gods (Dushare, Hubal) on the protection of the property. In Hegre also found inscriptions in Greek and Latin. But all of them are subject to rigorous dating and is studied in detail and described in the scientific literature.

Solar also watch from Hegre are completely different from Nabataean inscription (pre-Nabataean inscriptions found at Hegre 50).

Hours are from the local disk of soft sandstone pedestal, worn by time. Its dimensions are: height — 42 cm, width — 35, 5 cm, thickness — 28 cm surface, showing the time (12, 65 cm — is the radius), divided by eleven lines that master planning to make an equal distance from each other, but in reality are not the same distance. As stated [2: 333], the clock has a typical Roman-Hellenistic design. Column-pointer of this watch has been lost, but if we assume that he was equal to the radius of hours, and it was more than 12 cm, the mathematical calculation shows that the watches were intended for the area to the south of Mecca and Medina. And if we assume that the clocks were for Hegre, then, based on the latitude at which it is located, the column-pointer should have a height of 13, 48 cm

On the front of the watch includes a panel 29 cm long and 4.5 cm in height, on which the inscription. This inscription is attributed to the sources [2: 334] as Aramaic, and is proposed to read 'obvious' letters: mns br nln slm. And this collection of letters is proposed to decipher the name of the owner or dedicate hours and not the manufacturer. Is proposed that a set of letters mns Jewish name, as the presence of Jews in Madain Salih confirmed inscriptions on some graves.

However, we offer a completely different interpretation of letters, knocked on the clock.

Fig.2
The inscription should be read from left to right, as the letter P, N, K and sign № 8 to the right.

Caption transparent. The first three letters and the last, the 10th, quite recognizable: it is M (1,10); I (2), P (3). The fourth sign — is the letter N, in which the diagonal and right vertical reduced in size and raised. Such writing letters N occurs in Lycian and Carian pisme.Pyaty and sixth digits are the letter I. These letters are curved, which is obviously due to the aesthetic perception of the carver's or inscriptions. Earlier, a similar (curved) writing letters I met the authors in Tripoli Venetian and texts (functional and aesthetic reasons.) The Seventh Seal — the letter V (V), the left side which shows a curved, as well as the letter I. The letter V (V) is the Etruscans, Veneto, Umbria, Western Greeks, Carians. 8th sign — a ligature letters C and I, which is a demonstrative pronoun SI. Also, as a ligature, written demonstrative SI, for example, Carian texts. Demonstrative SI found in Russian, Etruscan and Lycian language. Ninth sign — is the letter K. A similar writing was greeted in Etruscan text of Steinberg [5]. That is, the nuances seen in the chart of letters are not some special, local, they are found in other neighboring and not alphabets. In the last letter M from the bottom of her right foot and dash is interrupted (see Fig.1). Perhaps for lack of space so trying to write a ligature MN (then the last word should be read as KMN).

According to maintain the appearance of the letters, the proposal on the stone can be broken into words as follows:

MIPNIIV CI KMN
 

And read: SI MIRNIIU KMN or peace CE STONE.
 

In archaic alphabets no signs for the letters N, J. wrote, instead of ending the first, end-D-AI, or IU, for example, in the Etruscan texts smelai, Sinai, siniu rather bold, blue [5]. Doubling the vowel is also characteristic of ancient languages (Russian, Etruscan, Venetian, Carian). Sound can be very long, for example, an interjection or IRS demonstrative SIIIIH [5]. In our village, and now, as it were singing words. KMN written word with the release of the vowels A and E. For the ancient language was typical write words with the release of one or more letters. KMN — it is stone. Ancient Russian spelling KAMA, zhen.rod. [7] or the Kama, imen.pad, muzh.rod., Singular [8: 70].

It is assumed that the stone is a sundial, a hemisphere is divided into 12 segments, but then what is the meaning of peace? WORLD synonym SUN? Rays on the stone — the rays of the sun, and perhaps this stone worshiped the sun, illuminating the world, white light, as worshiped Mithras — god of the sun and harmony. Either this is a stone that brings about, swore to the world. Both senses of the word is from the Russian MIR (MIR-white light and reconciliation agreement). [7]

As noted above, this area was inhabited earlier lihianity, some Arab tribes, as mentioned in the sources. [9] But if you carefully study the word 'lihianity "- which in the scientific literature in English sounds like" lihyan ", in Arabic:??), In Greek there is a similar word -?? — That is, Lycia, with inhabiting this country I millennium BC Lycians, which in ancient texts as a Russian, it is a recognizable word "dashing" [6], we see not just a coincidence, but a direct reference to the original homeland of Arabia "lihianitov" in Asia Minor — in Lycia.

But even if we continue to follow the tradition established in the science so far, and to explore the history of "lihianitov", deriving it from the Arab tribes, we find the following: Lihianity — an ancient Arab kingdom in northwest Arabia, about which little is known. Arab genealogy said Banu Lihian descendants of Arab tribes adnanitov Hothail, rulers of the north-west of the Hijaz. Their cities included Hegre, Al-Ula, Al Huraiba, Thame. At present the show in ancient inscriptions in Arabic, dated 6.4 cc. BC The word 'dedanity "- in English" dedanite "is used for a more ancient period of the history of this kingdom, as he gave the name of the capital — the grandfather, now known as the Al-Ula, an oasis located in the north-west Arabia. [9]

However, the word "dedan" means "low ground": grandfather (low) — the name of two locations:

a) (Jer. XXV, 23, Ezekiel. XXV, 13) — area of stony Arabia, to lat. from Edom, inhabited by the descendants of Dedan, son Jokshan, son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. XXV, 3);

b) (Ezekiel XXV, 13, XXVII, 15-20, XXXVIII, 13) — the country in Arabia, near the Persian Gulf, to trade with Tyre ivory, ebony and other populated and descendants of Dedan, son Raamah (Gen X, 7) of the descendants of Cush. In this country for a long time, after the fall of Tyre, there was still a city Dedan, who took part of the extensive trade and those subjects mentioned by Ezekiel Ave. The situation now places unknown, although it is the next name in the current Dadene Dedan, an island in the Persian Gulf. Prophecy of Arabia (Isaiah XXI, 13): In the forest in Arabia caravans dedanskie stay overnight! In his final statement, obviously, points to the inhabitants of Dedan trade. [10]

And this place name — Father — immediately related phonetically and meaningfully with the other decoded document — Etruscan text on Stela "Abel Felyuska" from Vetulonia [5: 25], with the word Selvi, indicating the language Etruscan land settlements. But this "land of settlements" — Selva mentioned AD Chertkov [12: The application, 30] with reference to Lucan, where the word is used in combination with the word Dodona — Sylva Dodona — Pelasgians first place of settlement. Pelasgians are known to the Greeks lived in Crete and mainland Greece.

Summarizing these facts, it can be noted that the Arabic inscriptions actually observed in the area, but there are only 4.6 cc. BC However, this area was inhabited much earlier, as shown above. And the word 'lihianity "and its earlier name" dedanity ", and also the place name" grandfather "-" low ground ", in conjunction with slovomselva (Selva Dodon) -" land of settlements "- all this points to the fact that it is the descendants of the Lycians lived here before the Arab tribes. Lycian language belongs to the Anatolian languages, and until recently it was considered a direct descendant of Luwian language. Hittite-Lubian languages belong to the Indo-European family of languages. Lycians believe immigrants from Crete, partly assimilated by the Greeks, Persians, partly [11].

Having examined the available sources of excavations at Hegre, now known as one of their centers Nabataean state, examining ethnonyms mentioned in ancient sources, we can conclude that the roots of civilization Hegre, so all Nabatean kingdom, should look into the deeper archaeological layers in Neolithic settlements, artifacts that bear inscriptions in Russian letters, as shown in this article. And the stones of our ancestors begin to "speak" to us through the centuries and millennia, detecting the presence of such ruses to remote areas like Jordan and Saudi Arabia, the present rulers of Russia is to provide a means for studying not only the artifacts already open, but to negotiate with the governments of Egypt, Turkey and the Middle East of the Russian Federation to participate in archaeological excavations of the programs in these regions.

If the ruling elites of the United States, France, Britain, Germany, the education and culture can understand the need for such things as funding expeditions aimed at understanding the scientific truth for the benefit of all mankind (because no presence ancestors Americans can not be, by definition, for example, in the Turkish Catal -Uyuke) and send its scientists to excavate in such remote regions, such that the lower the educational potential of our ruling elite? If our industry is producing enough oil and gas to the leaders of the ruling party have openly declared that the country is awash in oil money, why some of these funds are not spent on the study of the real position of Russia in the world — including in the ancient world? For, what material will try to fill the compulsory school curriculum, "Russia in the World" from education reformers, if our achievements in the world, in politics and in science ended in the last century?

Prerequisite is to raise patriotism pride in the deeds of their ancestors, and the more we get to know their role and place in history, the easier it will be to preserve the role of Russia in the new millennium.

 

EA Mironov, GG Kotova

 

Source:© Academy Trinitarizm
Institute of Slavonic civilization — Proto-Slavic alphabet

Literature
 

1.Klassen, E. New materials for the ancient history of the Slavs in general and Slavic Russ doryurikovskogo time especially with a slight sketch of the history of the Rus BC. AM 1854 (St. Petersburg 1995)

2. John F. Healey,A Nabataean Sundial from Mada'In Salih.

3. Jane Taylor, Petra and the lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans, Published in 2002 by IB Tautis & Co Ltd. London and New York

4.Sundial from Madain Saleh.JPGWikimedia Commons

5. Kotova, G. Etruscan texts: New Reading. — M., 2010.

6. Kotova, G. Lycian text / / First Regional Conference "Dokirillovskaya Slavic pre-Christian Slavic Writing and Culture" on March 11-12, 2011, Moscow State University of Management, 2011.
7. Dahl, V. Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language: The 4t.-M., 1989.
8. Winokur, T. Old Russian language. — M., 2007.
9. Wikipedia. Lihyan. URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lihyan
10. Bible Encyclopedia.Dedan. 
11. Wikipedia.Lycians
12. Chertkov, AD Thracian tribes who lived in Asia Minor. — M., 1852.


EA Mironov, GG Kotov, Russian inscription on the sundial of Nabataean Hegre / / "Academy Trinitarizm", M., El № 77-6567, publ.16438, 17.03.2011

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