Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis

What is it?

Sarcoidosis — is a systemic inflammatory disease which affects mainly the lungs. In Russia sarcoidosis ill about five people out of 100,000. More likely to suffer being adults 30-40 years. Children and the elderly are rarely sick.

At present, the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. This inflammation, in which lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) become very active. These cells produce substances which trigger the formation of granulomas (clusters of inflammatory cells) in various organs. The possibility of infection from sarcoidosis patients has not been proven, but there was a family history of the disease, which can be explained by heredity, or the action of environmental factors.

How does it manifest?

Sometimes, the first symptoms of sarcoidosis patients are fever, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue. Some have difficulty breathing, especially during physical exercise. There is a dry cough, muscle weakness and lethargy.

But, in spite of the fact that in 90% of cases of sarcoidosis affects the lungs, it is usually asymptomatic. In such cases, sarcoidosis can be detected only by X-rays, because the affected intrapulmonary limfauzly and it did not cause the patient any external manifestations. The most frequently found in lesions of the lungs following symptoms — shortness of breath, dry cough, chest pain, coughing up blood sometimes.

With a long and severe illness inflammatory changes in the lung may contribute to the formation of pulmonary fibrosis (abnormal tissue growth) and a decrease in respiratory function. Also sarcoidosis inflammatory changes frequently occur on the skin, eyes, joints and lymph nodes. In the absence of treatment of the eyes can cause blindness. In sarcoidosis can also damage the heart, brain, liver, kidneys and other internal organs.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis of "sarcoidosis" establishes a therapist after the examination and questioning of the patient. For a correct diagnosis is also necessary to conduct a full investigation. Doctor must prescribe blood chemistry and chest X-ray. May also need to conduct Mantoux test for tuberculosis elimination atthat sarcoidosis very similar in presentation. At Sarcoidosis reaction to the Mantoux test was negative. You may need to pulmonary function tests on a special device.

Sometimes the diagnosis requires bronchoalveolar lavage. For this purpose, a special lightweight flexible tube — the bronchoscope. It is used to remove fluid from the lungs. Fluid is then tested for the presence of cells, reflecting inflammatory process in the lungs.

To confirm the diagnosis may be necessary, and lung biopsy. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia, brief and painless. Of lung doctor will take a small piece of tissue using a special needle for analysis under the microscope.

Treatment

Most patients sarcoidosis disappears without treatment. If treatment is yet required, it should be under the permanent control of TB specialists, as only he can assess the severity of internal organ involvement, and assign the correct, full and timely treatment.

The most serious complications of Sarcoidosis are the development of respiratory failure and blindness, which can cause inflammation of the eye. These complications can be prevented by use of corticosteroids. When inactive during sarcoidosis should be once a year to visit a doctor and do chest x-rays to monitor the course of the disease.

Prophylaxis

For the prevention of exacerbations of sarcoidosis should try to keep a healthy lifestyle. The most important thing for lung disease — do not smoke, because it can lead to breathing difficulties and complications of the disease. Also, to avoid contact with the drug and chemicals harmful for the liver of toxic volatile substances, dust, fumes, gases, which can damage the lungs. Sarcoidosis increased content of calcium in the blood that can lead to the formation of kidney stones and bladder. Therefore, you should avoid eating foods rich in calcium (milk, cheese). For the same reason, avoid sun (ultraviolet light activates vitamin D, which increases calcium concentration in blood).

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