Industrialized countries contribute to reducing the population to about 30% of animal species, buying food and industrial products, the production of which live in developing countries organized plantations and industrial construction in the felled forests and destroyed ecosystems, climate scientists say in a paper published in the journal Nature.
Environmental and climatological effects of many forms of human activity is extremely difficult to evaluate and predict. The expansion of trade exchange in the last two decades of the last century, the development of transnational corporations and the increase in demand led to the expansion of agricultural land and the massive construction industry in many developing countries. The environmental impact of this process is extremely difficult to estimate because of confusion of trade relations and many other circumstances not related to the economy.
Group of climate scientists led by Manfred Lenzen (Manfred Lenzen) from the University of Sydney (Australia) tried to figure out all the consequences of this process, tracing the relationship between the decline of populations of 25,000 species of animals from the Red Book and the production of more than 15,000 products in both developing and industrialized countries.
The work Lenzen and colleagues analyzed nearly five million retail chains in 187 countries of the world and their contribution to the destruction of the planet's ecosystems. According to scientists, the international exchange of goods and the associated changes in developing countries to reduce the number of habitat and about 30% of animal species.
Scientists have combined the data obtained in the trade and the ecological balance of each country of the world, showing the relationship between international trade and the reduction of biodiversity. This balance consists of two elements — the export and import of environmental threat. In the first case it is the sale of agricultural and industrial products and related environmental damage, and the second — on imports of these products.
According to climatologists, the state of the world are divided on these criteria into two groups — the community of industrialized and developing importers exporters. Thus, the United States imports adversely affects the lives of nearly a thousand species of animals, and the export of products in Indonesia is detrimental to 200 species.
In general, the greatest damage to the environment causing the three main importers — the U.S., European Union and Japan. According to scientists, the contribution of trading activity in the Earth's species diversity is comparable to the global emissions of carbon dioxide.
Believe Lenz and his colleagues, the findings of their work should help climatologists and politicians to better assess the contribution of climate change in the species diversity of the Earth, and to separate it from other anthropogenic factors, including, and international trade.