Scientists using data from the expedition of the XIX century, determined that the temperature in the surface layer of the World Ocean in the last 135 years has risen by 0.6 degrees, the Internet portal LiveScience referring to a study published in the journal Nature Climate Change.
The study, conducted by researchers from the University of California, San Diego, with the support of the American administration Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) found that global "warming" of the ocean occurred over 100 years ago. Comparing data 1872-1876 British expedition's with modern, scientists have calculated that the "growth" of temperatures over the past 135 years was about 0.33 degrees Celsius at depths up to 7000 meters, and in the surface layer of water — up to 0.6 degrees.
"The index is calculated for the error introduced for the measurement board" Challenger "… This is a significant warming across the ocean" — quoted by LiveScience word study author, of the University of California, San Diego Rommiha Dean (Dean Roemmich).
In the course of the British expedition to sail-steam corvette "Challenger" in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, scientists have made about 300 of profiles (some of several measurements at one point, but at different depths — Ed.). On the thermometer which measures were established mechanisms for compensation of pressure to testify are not distorted at depth. However, according to Rommiha for the data necessary to provide a special rate of error, since data on the very back of measurement could be inaccurate.
After processing the historical data, the researchers compared them with the testimony of more than 3,5 thousands of automatic buoys modern system Argo, every 10 days, giving a "snapshot" of temperature and salinity in the ocean. Argo — an international program of operational monitoring characteristics of ocean water, which works since 2000. "Dive" buoys are programmed remotely, allow scientists to learn characteristics of temperature, salinity and other characteristics of the water masses at different depths.
It is believed that the warming of the ocean among the main "engine" of sea level rise. In addition, according to Rommiha, temperature rise in the ocean can be a major indicator of the energy balance of the planet, as the Earth absorbs more energy than it emits, and up to 90% "extra" heat takes over the ocean.
"Global changes in ocean temperatures can serve as almost a direct measure of the energy balance of the climate system in the whole world," — said the expert.