Scottish folklore abounds with centuries-old legend about a monster living in the murky depths of Loch Ness. But even studies using sophisticated modern technology can not yet reliably determine the monster reality or fiction.
Deep, dark and mysterious Loch Ness is a giant cavity in the earth's crust in the center of Scotland, in a place that today is considered unattractive and inaccessible to humans. More than 300 million years ago have developed these gentle mountain ranges, which settled this expanse of water, land sandwiched rearing. The lake is 38 km, width — 2 kilometers. Its depth in some places up to 200 meters, and the deepest mark — about 300 meters.
In calm weather, the lake seems to be perfectly still. Not by chance on his polished surface was attempted to set a world speed record on water. Unfortunately, the experiment ended in tragedy. On the shore of the lake is a monument to John Cobb, who died in 1952 in an attempt to break the record on a scooter with a jet engine. The explosion claimed the life of a famous motor racing driver.
On the existence of Nessie, the friendly giant that inhabits the waters of Loch Ness, it was officially announced in 1933. But the legend of it came down to our times.
Stop and do not touch
The first written mention of the mysterious creature that inhabits the waters of Loch Ness, refers to the year 565 AD. In the biography of Saint Columba the Abbot Jonah told about the triumph of the holy "water beast" in the River Ness. Abbot Columba then engaged in proselytizing Gentiles in the monastery at the west coast of Scotland.
One day he went to Loch Ness and saw that the locals burying one of his men, who was maimed and killed as he swam in the lake. A ruined his monster lives in the water.
One of the disciples of Saint lightly into the water and swam across the narrow strait to to drive the boat. When he set sail from the coast, "the water rose a strange-looking animal, like a giant frog, but it was not a frog."
As described by the abbot, St. Columba turned to the creature, and ordered: "Stop and do not touch this man." Monster obediently turned around and disappeared under the water. This is the beginning of the legend of the Loch Ness monster.
When for the first time in the waters of the lake monster has been found? In the spring of 1933 reporter Alex Campbell published an article "The sensational appearance on Loch Ness. What could it be? '. This article talks about how John McKay and his wife, who were on the shore, they saw a strange animal in the lake, which for some reason they dubbed a monster.
Readers were thrilled, and Alex Campbell began to systematically monitor the lake. Eighteen times he had seen the monster and most clearly in 1934, when the head, neck and hump Nessie appeared in 200 meters from the shore. In the same year, on the northern shore of Lake paved road and cut down trees and bushes for a better view of Britain's largest freshwater reservoir.
Fifty years later in an interview with the newspaper "Daily Mail" Mrs. McKay recalled: "I saw this one. It was March 1933, and we returned after the sale of real estate in Inverness. And suddenly … I could not believe my eyes. I've never seen such a huge creature. It was a huge black body, which then surged above the waves, it again goes under the water. It can not even be compared to anything. Not that elephant, not the whale. I cried out to John stopped, I do not remember the exact words, but he thought that I was frightened bees on the windshield. "It's just a wave," — said the husband. He persuaded Mrs McKay to remain silent about it. "Anyway, no one will believe you. They will say, need to drink less. "
But Mrs. McKay could not resist. She recalls, "I told someone a secret, that someone else, and so came to the inspector navigation Alex Campbell, and he was a local correspondent for" Courier ".
Loch Ness fever
Just two months after the case of spouses McKay Group of road construction workers watched as Nessie emerged in the middle of the lake passing astern of the ship. According to them, she had a huge head and a very large and massive body.
In August of that year, three of the witnesses noticed on the usually quiet Loch Ness excitement. Then, the surfacing, then again goes under the water, began to appear a few humps in a row. They moved in waves, like a caterpillar.
July 22, 1935, Mr. Spencer and his wife early in the morning were driving on the road between the villages of Dores and Foyers. To their surprise, in the way to move around a strange creature in the direction of the lake. Head on a long thin neck, heavy shapeless body. The creature waddling quickly approaching the water … So, Nessie lives not only in water, but also appeared in the land? Yes, it is. Registered cases of seven observers saw the animal on land.
Margaret Cameron recalled how as a child during World War II, she once heard a banging on the bank in the forest, and then saw the creature slipped into the water, "huge carcass is moved like a caterpillar." He had a shiny skin like an elephant, and two round feet ahead. As it entered the water, swaying awkwardly from foot to foot.
Over time, the messages began to come more often. In 1938, the tugboat captain and his assistant were surprised to see how emerged from the water column and the accompanying huge black ship "animal", reminiscent of a humpback whale. Not for long disappeared, it reappeared at high speed and raced past the tug, leaving a large wave.
Over the next fifty years, more than three thousand eyewitnesses seriously claimed to have seen Nessie. Could they all be wrong?
After analyzing 100 different certificates meet Nessie, the author of the book "Loch Ness Monster" Tim Dinsdal tried to give generalized dimensions of Nessie.
Neck — 3 meters. It rises above the water to a height of 2 meters. Body — 6.5 meters, the tail — 3 meters. When Nessie swims, her neck is tilted 30 degrees. Opinions differ on the number of humps. 45% of the witnesses say three humps, including average, the biggest, has a meter tall. 25% of the witnesses say that the back of the animal is smooth. Skin color in the representation of different observers varies from light gray, like an elephant, to brown. Nessie rises to the surface more often in the morning.
In five cases, observers saw two, and even a few creatures that suggests the existence of a small colony of animals.
In addition to eyewitness reports, confirmed the existence of a mysterious beast and photos. After a while, after reports of the spouses at Lake Mackay began to appear photographers to take pictures of Nessie. In November 1933 the Rev. H. Dundas and his wife saw the Loch Ness Monster and tried to shoot it on film. But when the film is shown, there is nothing to be found.
Yet, in 1933, came the first photograph of Nessie. It did Hugh Gray. Four frames were spoiled, and the fifth was seen a strange creature. After the photo was published in several newspapers, the company "Kodak" has officially confirmed the authenticity of the negatives.
In 1934, a London surgeon Robert Wilson managed to take a picture of Nessie. Snapshot struck all: over the water rose a little serpentine head on a thin neck. Was visible and one of the fins monster. This shot went through all the newspapers of the world.
On the search for Nessie researchers pushed not only of scientific interest, but also a financial incentive. For the capture of the monster had been promised a considerable sum. Demobilized soldier Frank Searle, having carefully studied all the material for a whole summer to 20 hours a day with a camera in his hands constantly watching the lake is a desert shore, then with an inflatable boat. Only once a week resistant soldier left his post to go down to the village shop. The lake has rewarded him for his diligence. December 21, 1972 at a distance of 250 yards from the boat finally appeared Nessie. She lifted her head to its flexible neck and twenty seconds with interest the rubber boat Searle. Nessie then plunged into the water, swam under the boat and re-surfaced on the other side. Thirty more seconds Observer had the opportunity to photograph the animal.
However, skeptics believe that these photos — either skilled forgeries, or they depict anything, not Nessie. The logs floating in the water, surf the stern of the ship passing a flurry of wind — all of which can give the appearance of Nessie, they claim.
The scientific approach
But can we ignore the massive evidence of eyewitnesses? Could it be that they are all, without exception, were lying or just mistaken? The answer to this question could only research. And they started.
Interested unusual phenomenon, the researchers scoured the length and breadth of the lake. Were used sonar, radar, sonar. Quiet Lake shaking from the explosions, which, according to the researchers, had to scare the monster, and drive it to the surface. In the lake was lowered even a small submarine. However, her work was complicated by the very low permeability of the light of the dark waters of the lake.
Alas, the scientific assault on the lake disappoint lovers of sensations. Underwater explosions caused no Nessie out of the usual for her protection, and sonar showed the movement of large objects at different depths of the lake.
The second stage of the hunt brought more notable successes. The lake is sensitive microphones were installed and special underwater spotlight with cameras. The idea was simple: when the microphones will catch under water noise-moving animal, immediately turn on projector, the light that the camera will record a passing monster.
First photos of 1972 did not cause enthusiasm. The film recorded a very vague and fuzzy body. Images can not be the basis for the new findings.
After this failure, the researchers decided that Nessie moves in the water so quietly that the microphones can not just turn on imaging equipment. The scheme of the shooting has been changed. Photographing was carried out automatically every 75 seconds, fixing everything that came into the frame. That is what gave two sensational picture of the body and the head monster, which became the basis for the convening of a symposium on the Loch Ness phenomenon. December 10, 1975 a group of British parliamentarians and experts in the field of zoology presented new images of Nessie, which was depicted bloated body, head with two bulges, like horns on a long neck, and finally, right rear fin diamond shape.
It seemed — all set point. But, alas, at the last minute canceled the symposium because of the controversy of the photographs. Their discussion in parliament caused a very hot and controversial debate.
Nessie — just a hallucination
Italian scientist Luigi Piccardi says that figured out the mystery of Nessie. Luigi specializes in research rather peculiar: he seeks out connections and correspondences between mythical creatures, historical descriptions and geological phenomena. He is convinced that the Loch Ness is not accidentally crossing the British Isles on a large crack in the earth's crust. This tectonic break from time to time is active and causes a small earthquake. The consequence of these shocks is to separate out of the ground a number of gases that can cause people to hallucinate. Under their influence, and people think that they see the fantastic beings. Thus, the elusive "animal", supposedly dwells in the dark depths of the picturesque Scottish lake, in the opinion of the Italian, is merely a vision arising under the influence of hallucinogenic gases.
Piccardi suggests that something similar happened to the famous Delphic oracle in the temple. The local oracle prophesied nanyuhavshis hallucinogenic gases, which were isolated from hydrocarbon-rich rock formations in place of a tectonic fault.
Many of the regions where, according to Greek mythology lived monsters or miracles happened, exactly the same, according to Packard, with areas of seismic activity. "Gassing in these areas could have consequences that people can see the non-existent phenomena, — he says. — This could be a raging fire, accompanied by a menacing roar out of the ground — the noise of a real quake. The horror of the human imagination transformed into a fire-breathing dragon. "
However, this explanation does not answer the simple question: why numerous eyewitnesses saw on Loch Ness are not different phenomena, and one monster Nessie. Italians do not confuse this objection. He believes that the search for the origins of the phenomenon to local traditions. "As you know, the inhabitants of the British Isles — people are conservative, centuries sticking with the same tradition — he argues. — Suffice to say something to someone, and this phrase is then repeated by his descendants in the tenth lap. As soon as someone once in a castle to imagine that he had seen a ghost, and it is forever "settles" here. And over time, his story snowballed more picturesque details … "
So in this case. Someone once said that he saw something in the lake like a giant snake, and this one is the only kind of hallucination caused a chain reaction. Also, do not discount the efforts of local hotel owners, at the expense of feeding the tourists. They strongly inflate every rumor about the new appearance of Nessie, preventing legend forget.
Who are you, Nessie?
In 1962, British naturalist Peter Scott organized the Bureau to study the phenomena of Loch Ness. He declared: "They are out there, probably, from twenty to fifty pieces. I think they belong to a plesiosaur. "
But plesiosaurs disappeared from the earth 70 million years ago! This happened even before the last ice age. However, hunters monster that fact is not confused. They concluded that Nessie and her ancestors had been cut off from the sea, when the lake was formed. It happened just at the end of the last ice age. Other experts argue that the plesiosaur could not survive in the Loch Ness or, at least, be kept in its original form and had to undergo significant mutation.
Relatives of Nessie
Nessie, of course, the most famous of his relatives. But she is not alone. In the seas and lakes of the world inhabited by monsters and other water.
In Okanagan Lake, near the US-Canadian border, is said to live monster named Ogopogo Large. He was seen long before they became famous Nessie. The first information about the miracle-Jude received from the Indians in the XVII century. They talked about the huge dark creature with a long neck and a hump on his back.
The name of this monster is "repentant", since, according to Native American legend, a killer, a penalty converted into a water snake.
In July 1890 Captain Thomas Shorts led the steamer "Jubilee" on the lake and on the beam Skuolli Point saw an animal with a length of 15 feet molotoobraznoy head. In his fins played sun.
But more recent data. Sawmill worker Arthur Folden sunny day in August 1968 with his wife was driving the car home. Suddenly they noticed something very massive moving rapidly in the calm waters of the lake. Folden stopped the car and took out his camera. For a full minute he was shooting an object sailing to 60-70 meters from the shore. Fear of ridicule, he is a year nobody showed Exposed tape until, finally, the relatives did not convince him to show the film to numerous spectators.
In 1976, new photographs. Ed Fletcher sailed on a boat on the lake, when a moving object cut his way. He recalled: "If I had not killed the engine, it would have crashed into it and jumped on his back, because the boat was only thirty feet away."
Fletcher and his daughter Diana swam to the shore for the camera. When they returned to the old place, Ogopogo reemerged from the depths. Fletcher, his daughter and another passenger, whom they took on board when back behind the camera, watching the beast for one hour. "He dived, swam under water a distance of a couple of city blocks, and then pop up again, and we are all the time and went to get him," — said Ed.
Monster pop up more than ten times. First snake swam, curled into a ball, then stretched out at full length. Fletcher made five shots. According to his daughter, his skin was smooth and brownish, like a whale, with a few bumps on the back. He swam in a meandering form of a corkscrew. Eyewitnesses have also noticed that the "over the head of his two protrusions sticking out like ears of a Doberman Pinscher."
In two Canadian lakes — Manitoba and Vinnipegosis — lives, according to eyewitnesses, another monster called manipulation — presumably relative of Ogopogo. Its also the first to discover Indians. Most of the witnesses say that the monster flat torso, snake head, dark skin and three humps. According to some reports, I have a girlfriend and manipulation cub.
The lake Chempleyn that stretches along the Canada-US border, is also seen a monster. This lake is first found in 1609 by Samuel Chempleyn, after whom it is named. According to him, the monster was like a twenty-foot snake with a horse's head.
In 1977, Sandra Mansi did an amazing photograph, presumably, a mysterious creature inhabiting the lake Chempleyn. Some skeptics claim that his head and neck are in fact a small fin whale lying on its side. Others believe that beneath the surface of the water was a sandbank, and we've got an optical illusion.
Experts from the Center for Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona studied the picture and have certified its authenticity. But that did not stop Professor Paul Kurtz of the State University of New York state that monster Chempleyna is as real as a fairy tale from.
In Ireland, too, has its own lake monster. Three priests even swore that they saw an unfamiliar animal on Lough Ree. May 18, 1960 Daniel Murray, Matthew Burke and Richard Quigley were fishing at the mouth of the River Shannon at Lough Ree. The silence was suddenly disrupted huge flatheads being closer to them. It was about thirty meters from the place where they were sitting. All three of them quite clearly see it.
The mystery remains
At the time, the messages of witnesses continue to come from all over the world, even modern science and technology can never bring humanity to solving this mystery.
Scientists say that they are not aware of fish, reptiles, mammals and amphibians that are consistent with the descriptions of lake monsters.
Indeed, we know that the giant reptiles that lived on land became extinct because they were unable to adapt to new conditions. But we do not know what happened to those whose habitat was water. Perhaps the answer to this question lazily hangs out in the darkest depths of Loch Ness and other large lakes of the world.