Test to measure the intelligence quotient (IQ) was developed by Hans Eysenck in the forties of the XX century. In the fifties IQ-test gained
The first tests to measure intelligence were created by Hans Eysenck in the Nazi project to create a race of supermen — the most beautiful, the most intelligent and genetically flawless. In the development of the test, he relied on the idea that each age has its own rules of intellectual development.
By the way, the relationship of Eysenck with Nazi ideology were quite confusing. On the one hand, he publicly disavowed Nazi views, and once got involved because of these charges into the fray. On the other hand, one time he was in a very close relationship to the tip of the Third Reich.
Nevertheless pen Eysenck owned several articles that talk about race, sex or genetic superiority. For example, in 1971, he threw eggs at a public lecture, which Eysenck claimed chtoIQ blacks on average 15 points lower than whites because of the characteristics of genetic code.
wildly popular in Europe, and its author became a celebrity. Intellect competed everything: in offices, and in the circle of friends. An expression like: "He has a low IQ» has become a euphemism characteristics: "He's a fool." That, by the way, far from the truth. After all, intelligence is defined as a set of cognitive abilities that show his level of thinking and ability to solve complex problems. Therefore the task of intelligence tests is to identify what type of thinking is most developed in humans — imaginative, logical, verbal, etc etc., and to assess its memory, the level of development, attention.
The first myth. The total number issued to you by the Test for IQ, is a measure of your intelligence and abilities.
In fact. Eysenck test contains several sections (called subtests) — an abstract, verbal, visual thinking, and TE subtest results are summarized, and finally issued the averaged value. Therefore, a person with an outstanding creative thinking and, say, a very unimportant logical outcome IQ-test will be so-so.
The second myth. The higher the IQ, the smarter the holder.
In fact. There is a joke about the fact that, say, the strong performance of the test Eysenck show is not about human intelligence, but only about his ability to run well on IQ tests. In every joke just some joke. After all scores IQ — A measure of a person's ability to learn something new. This is the degree to which a person can observe and understand what is happening. But neither the practical mind, nor to creativity, they are not related.
The third myth. A person with a high IQ is more likely than others to succeed in life.
Actually. In the preface to one of the most popular editions IQ-test Eysenck said that to achieve success in life to the high rate of intelligence must necessarily be accompanied by persistence and high motivation. A person with high intelligence but devoid of perseverance, risks life to waiting for "the hour." Persevering in cognition, but no goals unmotivated people at risk and do not get up from the couch. It is sad, but the best chance for success is a combination of motivation plus perseverance, even in the absence of clearly defined intelligence.
Myth Four. If a person's IQ higher than 170, he's a genius.
In fact. In professional IQ tests the highest score is 144. A result that exceeds this number, not too detail, and getting into the value "150 to 160" or "160 to 170", etc etc. However, clear results always give tests Eysenck, posted on the Internet.
Over the past 50 years, the average IQ of inhabitants of the Earth has increased by 12 points
The name of the New Zealand sociologist named James Flynn effect, through which each generation is smarter than the previous one. At the very least, faster and better performing tasks that are included in the psychological tests. There are several theories attempting to explain the Flynn effect, but none of them is generally accepted. Sam Flynn, James developed a mathematical model that describes a variety of factors that affect the mental development, and showed the relationship between these factors.
Flynn came to the conclusion that intelligence is largely dependent not on the genes and from the environment. Confirm this version and some experimental data. In particular, observed that native and adopted children who are brought up in a family show similar results when testing, although they have different biological parents.
Myth Five. You can take the test online and find out your own IQ.
In fact. All tests are posted on the Internet are simplified versions of the questionnaire Eysenck. And if such a test gives you a result of the "171" with a "Congratulations, your genius is undeniable," should definitely add, "against the background of the third-graders." Professional IQ-test every few years is reviewed by psychologists and changes adjusted for the Flynn effect.
Myth Six. IQ — a constant.
Actually. First, we need to distinguish between the real intelligence and performance IQ-test. Actual capacity may vary slightly depending on mood, well-being and even self-esteem. As for the riddles of the test, it is always necessary to remember that a situation in which there is a tested, a little bit artificial. A person may misunderstand poorly defined or poorly translated into Russian (there were also cases of) the conditions set. It can be in the middle of the dough to lose interest in this employment or be inattentive. And vice versa, can be trained to solve riddles of the test Eysenck, so that they will bounce off the teeth. But this is not an indication that his intelligence has increased incredibly.
Myth Seven. In the world there is some organization that's classified cleaner Masonic lodge to which humans belong c IQ, greater than 170. All of them are the princes of this world: the heads of major corporations, influential politicians, prominent public figures. However, if you are a janitor with exceptionally high intelligence, this organization sooner or later you will notice, will take under his wing, and then distinguished career is provided to you.
In fact. This myth with humanistic overtones expose even a little awkward. Let those who prefer it, continue to believe in him. In fact, there is a more democratic organization for people with high IQ — Mensa International (http://www.mensa.org). To power over this sinful world is irrelevant; Mensa has been more educational activities. But to join the international brotherhood is only one way: the notorious pass an IQ test and show remarkable results.
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