The most noticeable part of the construction of Stonehenge is a dolmen — a kind of "fence" of the exhibited around giant stone monoliths.
Monument researcher Gerald Hawkins was able to "collect" on Stonehenge cromlech 15 significant events (out of 18 possible). In this case, however, none of them can be represented by up to one minute of arc. At best, it could be tens of minutes, because there is no long-range reticles.
Jobs in the build Hawkins has 10 neighbors reticles 12 (as reticles used in some cases and opposing jobs). A total of 22 elements, allowing to observe 15 events. It is a very efficient and cost-effective solution. After all, usually arranged prigorizontnye Observatory to observe one event and needed to — each — in the three elements.
Arkaim design is such that the observation of the horizon you can just keep the walls of the inner circle, they need to locate and RMN, and BV: to the walls of the outer circle at the top level of the citadel will look much below the horizon.
Here we have identified four RMN BV and eight and 18 LW, but the layout has been resolved so rationally, that these elements enough to watch all the 18 important events!
9 Sunrise observation conducted from two locations, located in the western portion of the annular wall of the inner circle. One of them was strictly on the latitude lines of the geometric center of the circle. And on the same line was one of the two places for observation visits. Lunar event were distributed evenly observation tower — three for each.
As BV used but four RMN seven fixed points on the wall of the inner circle and one — on the outer wall (there is in fact, according to archaeologists, was high gate tower).
All twelve neighbors reticles reconciled in the design up to a minute of arc, and can be presented in the form of points, the physical dimensions do not exceed the thickness of the peg diameter of less than 5 centimeters.
Distant viziers while located on prominent parts of the visible horizon line — usually on the tops of hills and mountains, which, moreover, have been additionally equipped and artificial signs — mounds or stone calculations. More than half of these characters are well preserved.
All parts Observatory's Arkaim are both fixed points of the complex — is largely, though not yet fully understood — its geometric structure.
It is reasonable to assume that acting as a tool of astronomical observations was not the only or even the main function of the building. This conclusion follows from the fact that not all of the identified elements of the construction of "city" and the signs on the horizon around it are identified as parts of astronomical "instrument."
From this we can conclude that the performance of astronomical observations are only one facet of the desired complex, a complex function, which performs the settlement of ancient Aryans of large valley in the depths of the great Ural-Kazakhstan steppes. What is this feature? To clearly answer this question, we need to examine in more detail the design of the Arkaim, and better compare everything becomes known about this monument, with objects-analogues, which are found in different parts of the world.
But let us leave to the relevant professional puzzle purely archaeological, historical, even summarize what we know for certain enough about Arkaim as arheoastronomicheskom monument.
First of all, the construction, as it turned out, geodesically strictly oriented to the cardinal points. Up to the minute of arc on the horizon exhibited signs marking the latitude (west-east) and meridional (north-south) line passing through the geometric center design. (Geometric center of internal and external circles lie on a line of latitude and separated from each other by 4 meters 20 centimeters, and the outer circle is offset from the inner to the east.)
The accuracy of orientation Arkaim competition throughout the ancient world may be only a few pyramids of Egypt, but they are younger than two hundred years.
Meridian and latitude lines of the geometric center of the inner circle is used as a natural rectangular coordinate system, which is built in a top view of the entire structure. In the construction plan construction in this system were used many times the same value azimuth radial foundation on which to build a wall foundation premises of the inner circle. Moreover, in the same coordinate system made of ring marking parts with the specified radius.
From all of this geometry calculations through thorny set arkaimovskaya measure length. The editor decided that the method of calculation does not need the reader, to that it would take us far beyond the topic.
As for the concept of "arkaimovskoy measures of length," that, first, it should be noted nonrandomness measures of length in any system of measurements: yards, elbow, miles, miles, inches, meter — all modules of some vital dimensions. Sometimes, as is evident even from the very names — "elbow", "foot" (from the English foot — foot) — they are bound to the parameters of the human body: a rather unstable, we have to admit, the point of reference.
It is much more reliable if they are based on astronomical measurements: this is "meter" — initially it is measured from the earth's meridian, and in this series should be considered and arkaimskuyu measure. But, as it turned out with the accumulation of facts, the basis of each of the major monuments astroarheologicheskih lay its own measure of length: experts say stounhendzhskoy least, the extent of Egyptian pyramids …
[!] Arkaimskaya measure of length — 80.0 inches.
Recalculation obtained when measuring the size of the plan structure opens unexpected possibilities.
[!] It appears that the outer circle is constructed with the active use of the circle with a radius of 90 arkaimskih measures.
This result provides a basis for comparing the plan of foundation with the ecliptic coordinate system used to image the sky. "Reading" of Arkaim in this system gives amazing results.
[!] In particular, it is found that the distance between the centers of the circles is 5.25 arkaimskoy measures.
[!] This value is remarkably close to the angle of inclination of the lunar orbit (5 degrees 9 plus or minus 10 minutes).
Brought these values, we have reason to interpret the relationship between the centers of the circles (and by the circles) as a geometric expression of relations between the Moon and the Sun. Strictly speaking, fixed relationship between the Moon and the Earth, but for the terrestrial observer the sun moves around the earth, and the observatory was created as for the observation of the sun, therefore, is that today's astronomer perceives as the orbit of the Earth for arkaimskogo observer was orbiting the Sun.
The conclusion is that the inner circle is dedicated to the Sun, and external — the Moon.
[!] Another result is even more impressive: the area of the inner circle is circumscribed ring having a radius of 22.5 to 26 arkaimskih measures, if this value averaged — get somewhere around 24 measures. And then a circle with a radius may represent in the ecliptic coordinate system, the trajectory of the pole of the world, described by them around the ecliptic pole over a period of 25,920 years. This is described above precession.
Precession parameters are reproduced in the design of Arkaim, first, right, and second — exactly. If we agree with this interpretation of its construction, it is necessary to radically change the familiar idea of the skill of the ancient astronomers and make a substantial amendment to the history of astronomy, where it is assumed that the Greeks discovered the precession of the classical period, and its parameters were calculated only in the last century. Undoubtedly, the knowledge of precession — a sign of the high level of civilization.
By the way, putting the ecliptic coordinate system for the construction of Stonehenge, we came to the conclusion that the main, if not the only function of this facility was storing information about precession.
Continuing the analysis of the design of Arkaim, we find in its geometry and other astronomical symbols.
[!] Thus, within the inner walls of the buildings, calculated in arkaimskoy least guess the number expressing the height of the pole above the Arkaima, it also means the latitude location of the monument. Interestingly (and perhaps accidentally), which is about the same latitude located and Stonehenge, and Arzhan Altai …
In planning the premises of the inner circle is difficult to guess the harmonic foundation for the realization of architectural forms of representation of the creation of the world and man.
The above methods do not exhaust the astronomical symbols, structural richness and diversity of techniques used by the great — literally — architects.
Experience in the Arkaim leads to the conclusion that we are dealing with an extremely complex and perfectly executed object. A particular challenge to study it because it confronts us from the past once in all its splendor, and was not visible monuments are simpler, like lead-in to it on the ladder of evolution. It is hoped that this is a temporary glitch. Although it is clear that a great many things do not happen.
Arch us harder, and our task — to rise to the heights it without destroying strange and not understood.
The presence of skeptics necessarily in that case, their opinion known ahead of time — it has been repeatedly stated over, say, the Egyptian pyramids or Stonehenge: always, they say, there is its own measure (in this case, arkaimskaya), which is convenient to operate, there is always that what divide and multiply, to get a result coveted astronomical quantities expressing the relationship of the Sun, Earth, Moon, etc. In general, these mysterious ancient structures — whether those astronomical institution? Maybe it's just our imagination today? ..
An incredibly high level of astronomical knowledge in antiquity takes if not all, many of these issues. The ancient observatory, and the results were subtle and long astronomical observations.
It makes sense to remember that in ancient Babylon to accurately calculate an eclipse of the sun and the planets in relation to each other. In Sumer the time of the moon was known to within 0.4 seconds. Duration of the year, according to their calculations, was 365 days 6 hours and 11 minutes, which is different from today's data only for 3 minutes. Sumerian astronomers knew about Pluto — the most distant planet from our solar system, open (in, not for the first time) by modern scientists only in 1930. Orbital period around the Sun, Pluto is at today's data, 90,727 Earth days, appears in Sumerian sources number 90,720 …
Mayan astronomers numbered the duration of the lunar month, up to 0.0004 days (34 seconds). While the earth rotates around the sun they equaled 365.242129 days. With the most accurate modern astronomical instruments is the number specified: 365.242198 days.
Examples could be multiplied, and all of them will be awesome … Some researchers seriously believe that Stonehenge ring exactly simulate the orbits of the planets, and even the weight of stone blocks are chosen not by chance — they recorded the location of the elements in the periodic table, the speed of light, the ratio of proton and electron masses, the number of "Pi" … Something like saying and the pyramids …
Hard to believe.
But, nevertheless, on the planet have a few plants, to confound modern science: the Egyptian pyramids, the giant desert Nazca drawings, Stonehenge in England, in Scotland Kallenish, Zorats-Car in Armenia and it looks like our Arch …
Explain why and how our ancestors built these amazing structures difficult. But they can not be ignored. American scholar Gerald Hawkins argues that for the construction of Stonehenge took no less than a half million man-days, it's huge, just a waste of innumerable forces. Why? Why Arch — the largest and, as the KK Bystrushkin, Brand prigorizontnaya Observatory — primitive, semi-wild, as it was to believe people who lived nearly five thousand years ago in the southern Ural steppes?
Yes there Stonehenge and Arkaim — we still can not deal with the dolmens: like simple structure, a kind of poor stone birdhouse. And yet they are bound to have a significant astronomical orientation and are, in fact, the ancient calendar of humanity.
So, maybe we do not really objectively evaluate the distant past of humanity? Perhaps, in an ecstasy of consciousness of their own civilization (if not imaginary?) And mnogoznanie (not apparent right?), We exaggerate the extent of their "primitive"? What if our ancestors were so primitive not us, but just lived differently, for some unknown to us laws? What if yes rights KK Bystrushkin stating that Arkaim more than us, and if we want to understand it, we should be able to rise to the heights of his? …