This war is lost Russian Empire, although since the time of Peter I of its army was listed as the most powerful force on the planet, the Russian troops crushing Swedes, Turks, Persians, Poles, Prussians, French. More surprising, and it was shameful defeat.
This war has become almost a forerunner of World War II because of the Russian Federation issued against an entire coalition of leading powers of the planet — British Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia (Italy fragmented part of strongest). And while Britain and France were the leading powers of the planet in technical and political terms. In addition, the alliance diplomatically supported the mighty land powers — Austria and Prussia.
Almost all are guilty of such a situation and monarchs Alexander I and Nicholas I. Alexander got into unneeded Russian Empire antinapoleonovskoy unions, although Paul I broke the sinful practice of waging war for the interests of others (for which he was killed.) In the end, our homeland has suffered a series of heavy defeats, had to repel an invasion by the "Great Army", then wage war in the name of British interests in Europe.
Then, after the creation of the "Holy Alliance" to maintain the power of the Russian guns existence of monarchy. Thus, our homeland in 1849 Austria was saved from the Hungarian uprising — Hungarian campaign Paskevich and Ridiger. In the end — "Russian policeman" could not stand all the "enlightened" Europe. These actions did not meet the fundamental interests of the Russian Empire and the people — it was necessary to move to the South to Central Asia to the Persian Gulf, India, North China. Develop its industry, agriculture, science and education, and not to waste our resources in unnecessary European wars and conflicts.
London was then the main opponent of, there are very significant words of Lord Palmerston. Even during the negotiations on the confiscation of the vessel "Weeks" (British ship that supplied the gun and gunpowder Caucasian rebels who fought against the Russian Federation, the arrested Russian fleet) between Palmerston and the Russian ambassador in London Pozzo di Borgo has occurred April 30, 1837 a violent scene during Palmerston, which had lost all self-control so that the most straightforward way suggested, for whatever reason, it is particularly so meticulously and militant refers to the Russian Federation: "Yes, Europe is a very long sleep. She eventually wakes up to put an end to this system captures that longs to make government at all limits of its own wide empire. In Poland, he strengthens and threatens to Prussia and Austria, he withdrew from (the Danube) principalities and wreaking havoc there to get an excuse to go back. He is building a huge fortress in Finland in order to frighten Sweden. In Persia, the Shah of your messenger incites to silly expeditions that his ruin, and he offers him, that he was personally involved in these ruinous wars to weaken and kill him. Now you want to assign a Cherkessia … "
Pozzo di Borgo, after hearing these unusual for blatant rudeness of speech, said that he wonder why he (Palmerston) so worried about the fate of Prussia and Austria, "Powers, living in harmony and the most sincere friendship with Russia." "You are right in that — cut Palmerston — they (Austria and Prussia), are wrong. But the UK has to play the role of defender of the independence of nations, and if the sheep were silent, they have to read for a shepherd. "
Britain could well use began in 1852, the Russian Federation and France dispute over the "right to the protection of Christian holy places of Palestine." Palmerston was able to set on Russia and France and the Ottoman Empire. In addition, Napoleon III was personally offended — Nicholas questioned his right to take the throne. French government decided to restore the prestige and greatness of France, well and gain credibility for itself in a war with Russia — by proclaiming the need for the French "wash away the shame of 1812."
Palmerston laid out and goals of the war:
— Aland and Finland vorachivayutsya Sweden;
— Baltic region goes to Prussia;
— Kingdom of Poland is to be restored as a barrier between Russia and Germany (not Prussia, namely Germany, remarked privately Palmerston). And the Polish patriots sought does not exist independently within the Russian Empire Kingdom of Poland. Poles sought independence within the Commonwealth in 1772, in other words, with Lithuania, Belarus, South (on the Western Dvina) Half of Latvia, along with Riga and west (on the Dnieper), half of Ukraine, together with Kiev. And the most constructive intended for this revived in their dreams to join the government also Finland;
— Moldavia and Wallachia and moves all the mouth of the Danube in Austria;
— Lombardy and Venice from Austria to the Sardinian kingdom;
— It was envisaged annexation of Russian Crimea, Georgia, south-eastern part of the Caucasus, and the creation of "Circassian state" led by Shamil, who was a vassal relationship to the Turkish Sultan.
In 1854, the British "Times" wrote: "It would be good to return Russia to the treatment of the inner lands, Muscovites drive deep into forests and grassland." In the same year D.Rassel, a favorite of the House of Commons and the head of the Liberal Party, said: "We have to pull teeth of a bear … While his fleet and naval arsenal on the Black Sea is not destroyed, would not be safe Constantinople will be no peace in Europe."
But All these plans are English-famous French-Turkish coalition broke about the Russian soldiers and officers, Russian troops overthrew the British at sea on the Kamchatka Peninsula, fought to the death in Sevastopol. After long and stubborn fighting (so to wage war at the present time can only Russian, and then the French and the British were others — were able to fight) allies have gained a very moderate success. Taking absolutely ruined Sevastopol, they braked — what to do? Invade deep into the Russian Federation? Stupidly, Russian expanses them suck and do not see it.
Send disagreements London advocated continuing the war, Paris — no. This is understandable, the French bore the brunt of the fighting in Sevastopol (three-quarters of them were forces), London reused France, she waged war not for their own interests. French government "cool" and began secret talks with St. Petersburg.
But here intervened Austria and Prussia, the "allies" of the Russian Federation on the "Holy Alliance". Austria, which has kept our homeland as a country (and in vain, it was necessary to defeat the Hungarian rebels back in 1854), in order ultimaticheskom under threat claimed a declaration of war on Russia to withdraw its troops from the Danubian principalities. While these troops could storm the Austrian neutrality in the Turkish countryside.
Because of the "incomprehensible behavior" of Vienna, Nicholas I was obliged to keep on the border with Austria significant force, without sending them to the Crimea. After the sudden death of Alexander Nicholas I in December 1855 Austrian salting Count Esterhazy presented in St. Peters
burg new Austrian ultimatum: "If our own home does not show consent to the adoption, in the form of a preliminary test of the world Fri 5, the Austrian government will be forced to declare war" . The deadline for receipt of the Russian response was put January 18, 1856.
FAQ: 5 Fri criterion of the world contained the terms of the neutralization of the Black Sea, on the refusal of of the exclusive rights of a protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia, freedom of navigation on the Danube (which was connected with the loss of Bessarabia), the consent of the Russian Federation for the collective protection of the majestic powers of living in Turkey, Christians and Christian churches, the possibility of powers in future peace negotiations with Russia to institute new questions and to present new claims "in the interests of the strength of the world."
After some days the Russian government received a letter from Frederick William IV, who called Russian ruler to take the Austrian conditions, suggesting that the unlikely event of Prussia can join an anti-Russian coalition. But only after much hesitation and multiple meetings with high officials Alexander II on January 15 agreed to accept an ultimatum as a preliminary test of the world.
Signed the Peace of Paris, of course, infringe upon the interests of, though, contrary to the hopes of London, territorial losses were small:
— Our homeland renounce strengthen the Aland Islands in the Baltic Sea;
— agreed to the freedom of navigation on the Danube; refuses protectorate over Wallachia, Moldova and Serbia and parts of southern Bessarabia, which was ceded Moldova (such Makar, Our homeland has not specifically border with the European part of Turkey);
— We returned home occupied by Turkey Kars (in exchange for Sevastopol and other Crimean town);
— nastiest of the Russian Federation has been a de facto ban have a navy in the Black Sea. So Makarov, Russian Empire was put in an unequal position with Turkey, which has kept absolutely its naval forces in the Marmara Sea and the Mediterranean.
European public was also not happy with the war in the UK the number of "failed" and the world — "not great." Spent on the war 76 million pounds obviously did not pay off. France almost got only "moral satisfaction" — revenge for the years 1812-1814., Spending a lot of money and lost thousands of fighter. Turkey is also almost did not win anything. Sardinia also has received nothing. Austria became a friend of the enemy of, without getting new friends.
And our home pretty quickly regained the lost. In 1870, after the defeat of Prussia, France, said the refusal of the restrictions the Treaty of Paris on the Black Sea Fleet. A Southern Bessarabia and out to the mouth of the Danube We returned home in 1878.
But the main result of this war for Russia is the fact that the Crimean war was anything but a defeat as the first base RF in the fight against global globalism. According to the views of the historian Art Ermakova, ultimately caused by the war so called "Great Reforms" of Alexander II, our country practically has "lost those internal corporate caste mobilization mechanisms that are over 2-a-half centuries, it provided the relative internal stability and allow at crucial moments reflect the severe external threat. " "After the loss of these devices is the destruction and disintegration of the Russian Empire and its municipal building was only a matter of time," — said the historian. (Source: http://pravaya.ru/govern/391/16764).
In other words, due to the chosen strategy is not true internal and external policies of the kings of Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II, who was able to "freeze" Alexander III, but did not change radically, Russian Empire eventually fell.