Ocean, powerful and frightening long been attracted to his person. He was a source of food, and discovery of new ways and yet countless ills. The eyes ancestors streamed expanse not only water, but also in its depth. Today we will focus on the first submarine, grandparent who can rightly be considered Leonardo da Vinci.
This amazing man is definitely ahead of his time in the field of inventions and art, developed drawings, according to which it was possible to create a vessel capable of traveling under water. Unfortunately, or fortunately, he destroyed them, saying that humanity is too angry to have such a technique, because he has a way to kill their own kind, even on the bottom of the sea.
The only survivor is a sketch of an oval vessel with a ram mounted on the nose and a small deck house with a hatch in the middle.
It is this figure and became the inspiration for the following inventors.
In the period between 1580-1605, William Brun and Magnus Petilius created ships capable to dive, but move under water, they did not know how.
In 1620, Cornelius van Drebbel — a talented physicist, engineer, as well as court physician to the King of England, James I, created underwater vessel with wood and oiled leather, which, sinking to the bottom of the Thames could stay under water for a few hours. Mechanics of descent and ascent was realized by filling the leather bellows. Drove a submarine through the pole, which kapitan repelled from the bottom of the river. A little later, the submarine has been modernized oars.
In 1634, the French monk P. Mercier proposed ship design, crafted from metal and armed drills and guns. It was a sketch of the first combat submarine, which was never destined to see the light.
Russia, in 1718. Peter I received a petition from some Yefim Nikonov Prokopyevich, that is, working at the shipyard, claimed to be able to create a vessel that will be under water approach to the bottoms of enemy ships and shoot them out of cannons. Tsar of Russia, known as a fan of innovation, endorsed the idea. After some time, the model was created, capable of all that he had promised Nikonov, and in the middle of 1720 laid the first submarine in the world.
By design, the ship was a wooden cask, 6 * 2 meters, covered with tin snaruzhi.Pompa and a pair of lead plates, with lots of tiny holes, were responsible for immersion and emersion. The guns he replaced the hole through which the diver had to go out (in costume, created by the same Nikonov) and pierce the bottom of a bowl of enemy. After 4 years of construction and reconstruction submarine was launched. Unfortunately, when she damaged the bottom of the descent and had to urgently pull together with the inventor. Peter I ordered to strengthen the body with iron hoops and provide the master of all necessary materials. Unfortunately, after the king's death in 1725, funding for the project ceased. As a result Prokopyevich Yefim Nikonov was demoted and exiled to the far Admiralty as an ordinary worker.
Only in 1773 the United States has been built and successfully tested a submarine, created David Bushnell. His ship was named "Turtle" because of the kind of structure. Oak planks, iron hoops, copper tower hatch and portholes, ballast tank at the bottom — the first part of the submarine Americans. Moved the "turtle" with oars, and the death of enemy ships had to bear the expense of clock hour mines.
In the future, many countries have tried to create devices that provide absolute advantage in a sea battle, but not many were able to create a complete underwater ship. But more on that another time.