The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in April was 400 parts per million (ppm) — a value such that scientists project that figure was reached only in 2016, the website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the USA (NOAA).
According to calculations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to a 90% chance to avoid catastrophic and irreversible climate change, it is necessary to keep the 2050 CO2 at 450 ppm, an increase in global average temperature to 2 degrees Celsius. In the pre-industrial concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere should not exceed 280 ppm.
Such a high concentration of CO2 in the world marked the first time, and the index has been steadily rising, said an official NOAA TENS Peter (Pieter Tans), whose gears are given in the message. On the basis of the "new" growth, NOAA experts expect that next year will increase the concentration to 402 ppm.
"According to our estimates, this figure should reach 400 ppm by the year 2016 only, it turns out that the reality ahead of estimates for six years," — said the TENS.
The expert noted that the measurement of CO2 that have been observed in the Arctic — the most remote from civilization stations — "give an idea of what the planet will come in the coming years", so this figure can be considered to forecast the average concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
In April this year, scientists from the U.S. Scripps Institution of Oceanography released data showing that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere in 2011, compared with the previous year increased by 0.72% — from 388.56 to 391,3 ppm.
Carbon dioxide makes up a large part of all the greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere by human activities — particularly the burning of fossil fuels (in particular oil, gas and coal).
Attempts to reduce the harmful effects led to the adoption in 1992 by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. In 2005 came into force the Kyoto Protocol United Nations Framework Convention, which contains quantitative commitments by developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The protocol provides two project-based mechanisms to reduce emissions, as well as international trading. To participate in these mechanisms parties must submit annual reports to the rules defined by international agreement.
Russia announced its refusal to participate in the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The second period, which along with Russia will not join Canada and Japan, due to begin January 1, 2013. Parties climate negotiations have failed to agree on when it will end in 2017 or 2020 — it will determine the session in Qatar in 2012.
The measurements were carried out at the Laboratory for the Study of Earth systems (Earth System Research Laboratory — ESRL) at NOAA. Data obtained in the north of Canada, Finland, Norway, and in Iceland and on the islands in the North Pacific Ocean. The measurements are made in two ways. First — laboratory analysis of air samples are collected every week experts and volunteers in more than 60 locations around the Arctic. Second — continuous observations using instruments installed at six weather stations, observatories, also located in different Arctic countries.