History of Creation
The emergence in the late 1950s in the United States supersonic strategic bomber B-58 "Hustler", also working on the creation of high-altitude, high-speed strategic bomber XB-70 "Valkyrie" and the high-altitude reconnaissance SR-71 "Blackbird" achieved an adequate response from the Russian aviation industry. Task to develop an effective means of dealing with these machines has been put before the Mikoyan design bureau, which has already had experience in the creation and testing of experimental fighter-interceptor, developed under the interception system "Hurricane", namely the interceptor Series E-150. The last of these vehicles, having an index of E-152, could fly at speeds of up to 3000 km / h, although the time of flight at supersonic speed was limited.
By developing the new aircraft, which received the designation intrafactory E-155, the designers OKB Mikoyan began in 1961. In the design of the interceptor was used experience that has been obtained in the development of aircraft projects, E-150 and E-152, in the first part of the use of construction materials that were able to withstand the harsh thermodynamic heat when flying at supersonic speeds. Also on the plane was planned to use low-pressure turbo-jet engines P15-300 and the automatic process of interception with the introduction of the targeting by land-KP. In addition to the fighter-interceptor which received the designation E-155P, were working on the creation of a high-rise high-speed spy — E-155R, which had several options for configuration of various intelligence apparatus. In terms of a constructive planes were very uniform, differing only in the composition of weapons and equipment.
Significant take-off weight of the car (over 35 tons), and unique high-altitude high-speed properties (speed about 3000 km / h, the ceiling at 22-23 km) identified the need for a power plant of 2 Turbojet type R15B-300 are developed in afterburner thrust 11 200 kgf. each. The engines were located close together in the tail of the car. Designing an aircraft with such features the highest altitude and airspeed was associated with the solution to overcome the thermal barrier. Classic construction materials that have been used in the aircraft industry, could provide work in the criteria for long heating at temperatures of 300 degrees Celsius, which appeared at the speed of flight with M> 2.5. For this reason, as structural materials for the aircraft were used stainless steel VNS-2, VNS-4 and SPC-5 (which amounted to 80% of the total weight of the airframe), heat-resistant alloys dural HAT-1 and D-19T ( about 11% by weight) and titanium alloys (about 8% by weight). The main process technology in the development of the airframe is the automatic welding.
New E-155P aircraft had to enter into the aviation and missile systems to intercept air targets the C-155, which in addition to the aircraft with onboard radar "Smerch-A" included UR K-40 with thermal and semi-active radar homing missiles and ground system pointing at the target aircraft "Air-1", which aired the team on board the fighter with equipment "Azure". In 1962-1963, a pilot production of OKB-155 began the construction of 4 prototype of the E-155 for 2 in an embodiment of the interceptor and scout. The assembly of the first car was completed in the summer of 1964, and only 9 September of the same year, a test pilot PM Ostapenko for the first time raised the plane into the air.
July 9, 1967 4th most experienced interceptor took part in the air display, which was held at Domodedovo. Aircraft flown by test pilots NII Air Force, which was performed and municipal tests aircraft. Demonstration of the latest at the time of fighter-interceptors caused a strong revival in the stands. October 5, 1967 test pilot AV Fedotov found on plane E-155P1 world altitude record with a weight of 1 and 2 tons, which totaled 29,977 meters and has exceeded U.S. owned outright record for 4 km.
Resolution of the Council of Ministers on 13 April 1972 fighter-interceptor was adopted in the complex MiG-25-40 under the designation MiG-25P. Fighter series carried out on the basis of the Gorky aircraft plant from 1969 to 1982 (the last aircraft delivered to the customer in 1983.) Total for this period was 1,190 MiG-25 of all modifications of their more than 900 in the version of the fighter-interceptor MiG-25P and MiG-25PD.
Description of construction
Fighter-interceptor MiG-25 was carried out by conventional aerodynamic configuration with the introduction of high-lying trapezoidal wing, also two-keel all-moving horizontal and vertical tail surfaces, having a differential control. Power airframe was welded and are made of stainless steel. Boarding wing was partly made of duralumin alloy, partly of titanium. An integral part of the fuselage of his aircraft were welded fuel tanks.
Wing fighter was Dvuhlonzheronnoe, with a sweep angle on the front edge of a 42,5 °. At the rear edge of the wing flaps and ailerons were. On each console had aerodynamic ridge. The aircraft was equipped with ejection seat KM-1M, which provided the pilot emergency escape vehicle at a height of at least some flight speed of over 130 km / h Also on the plane was set dvuhkupolny brake parachute system with parachutes in the area of 60 and 50 square meters. The left ventral ridge was special, hauled down while landing down the probe, which when touched the runway surface on landing activated the automatic release braking parachutes. Tricycle landing gear was. Despite the presence of large diameter wheels, the highest pressure in the tires is not allowed to operate the aircraft from the ground airfields.
Aiming equipment fighter-interceptor version of the MiG-25P consisted of a radar "Smerch-A" with schetnoreshayuschim device "Tornado-AB, red dot scope of K-UT and radio command guidance" Lazur-M ". MiG-25 was the first Soviet aircraft that got my computer made Ramensko
ye KB (CBSI). The fire control system was automatic, radio telemetry receiving commands from ground stations guidance, she was able to bring fighter-interceptor to the target without the participation of the pilot.
On the MiG-25PD and PDS used radar RP-25 "Sapphire-25" with the calculator AVM-25, also teplopelengator 26SH-1. Improved version of the onboard radar was able to find an air target with an effective surface diffusion (ESR) of 10 sqm. meters at a distance of 100 km, it is also capable of detecting and accompany aerial targets, soaring against the ground.
The structure of the navigation system fighter who received the title of "Flight-1I" included: the radiofrequency range navigation system RSBN-tse, system air signals SVS-PN-5, and heading SLE-2 H-2, automatic control system SAU-155P. Also at plane There were altimeter RV-4 or RV-PA, ARK-10 radio compass, marker receiver MRP-56P and the defendant CO-63B.
Pilot Communication with other aircraft and ground Fri carried out using VHF radio R-832M or R-802B (RSIU-5), and HF radios R-864 or R-847RM. On the interceptor installed a special warning receiver station SPO-10 "Sirena-ZM" or SPO-15 "Birch". Also, the defendants state identification system and the SRO-2M aircraft interrogator-transponder system-another SRZO-15.
On the MiG-25P is the first time in the Russian aircraft industry was set low pressure Turbojet 15B-300 design engineer SK Tumanskiy. These engines, which are at the greatest rate of flight (3000 km / h) were heated to 1000 ° C, especially birth control silver-plated shields. Fine silver, which was spent on each interceptor was almost 5 kg. The MiG-25PD and PDS were equipped with more advanced engine Turbojet R15BD-300. As an aviation kerosene fuel used high-T 6. The same kerosene used in the cooling system of the aircraft as a coolant.
Armament fighter was located on the 4 x 4 underwing hardpoints. Fighter-interceptor MiG-25P could carry up to 2 hypersonic (maximum speed of m = 5) of R-40R medium-range semi-active actions radar homing (the greatest distance equal to their run 35-60 km), and 2 of R 40T-IR (thermal) homing. On fighter versions of PD and PDS can be used R-60 and R-60M short-range actions.
In the reconnaissance version of the MiG-25RB is poured about 250 liters. "Massandra" — alcohol-water consistency, and 50 liters. untainted by alcohol, ready for use. When making each flight "to disperse" (at high altitude and high speed), all this in store to be written off. Pretty easy to imagine that happening with the alcohol in the army after the write. At one point "on top" even took a letter from the wives of servicemen who have requested to change the alcohol to something else. When the government appealed to the Mikoyan with a request for substitution, he replied that if the merits of these aircraft performance characteristics of aircraft it will need to refuel aircraft Armenian cognac — it will be Armenian cognac. All the same, after a while alcohol on the plane was changed to the "non-food" part.
The performance properties of the MiG-25PD:
Dimensions: Wingspan — 14.06 m, length — 22.3 m, height — 6.5 m
Wing Area — 61.9 square meters. m
Aircraft weight, kg.
— Empty — 18,800
— normal take-off — 34,920
— maximum take-off — 41,000
Motor Type — 2 Turbojet R-15BD-300 dry power -86.3 kN in afterburner — 109.8 kN.
The highest speed at altitude — 3000 km / h at sea level — 1,200 km / h
at supersonic speed — 1250 km.
at subsonic — 1730 km.
Ceiling (with 4 SD) — 20 700 m
Crew — 1 person.
Armament: combat load 1800 kg. 4-point suspension of SD air-to-air: R-40RD 4 or 2 x R-40TD and 2 x R-40RD or 2 x R-40RD and 4-P-60M.
[i] Applied sources:
www.testpilot.ru/russia/mikoyan/mig/25/pd/mig25pd.htm [/ i]