Winged pride of the Russian Federation (Part the third) — TB-1

TB-1 (ANT-4) — 1st Russian bomber, also the first-ever serial heavy-metal twin-engine monoplane bomber. Plane was designed by AN Tupolev, its development took 9 months. In 1925, the aircraft was made in metal. Serially carried out from 1929 to 1932, only 212 had been built bombers of this type. In service with the Red Army was until 1936, after it was withdrawn from service and transferred to Aeroflot, where, under the designation T-1 (CV-first) was used as a transport aircraft, at least until 1945. At this plane was made a flight from the Soviet Union to the United States in the length of 21,242 km of its 7950 km above the water (flight occurred with landings).

First, the 1920s in the middle of the young Russian aircraft designers republic broke discussion of what you need to build airplanes. The wealth of forests in the Soviet Union, it seemed was to persuade the fact that Russian planes have to be made of wood. But were in the midst of young Russian aviators and those who held that the Soviet Union should issue all-metal aircraft. The latter attitude and Andrei Tupolev.

Tests carried out in the USSR substantiated that duralumin aircraft owned by the best, compared to wood, flight characteristics. Despite the fact that aluminum has a greater than wood, the weight, the aircraft made of aluminum, wood turned out to be easier. Explained by the fact that in the wood planes lowest strength of the wood to compensate for the increased width of spars, ribs, frames and stringers. The success of light-metal aircraft that have been made Tupolev assured the management of the country of the need for the creation of an all-metal bomber languid. November 11, 1924 by order features Technical Office in TsAGI began work on the design and construction of the TB-1.

Winged pride of Russia (Part Three) - TB-1

Experienced standard TB-1 bomber flew on 26 November 1925. This plane was indeed the famous machine that in almost all cases it was possible to apply the phrase "the first Soviet". It was the first Russian bomber monoplane, the first Russian all-metal bomber, the first Russian bomber, which entered series creation. Besides TB-1 was the progenitor of a whole family of multi-engine aircraft, which were made under famed Russian aircraft designer Andrei Tupolev. Specifically, the TB-1 begins in our country becoming a strategic aviation.

Description of construction

TB-1 — is a twin-engined all-metal cantilever monoplane. The main body material — duralumin with the introduction of a special construction sites are loaded. Glider bombers could be divided into separate units, which facilitated its ready position, repairs and transportation. The base design of the farm were railroads and duralumin tubes that carried the brunt of the burden. Corrugated sheathing provide aircraft hardness and strength in torsion.

The fuselage cross-section bombers represented the trapeze with the restriction to the bottom and included three compartments: F-1 — front, F-2 — Central and F-3 — the tail. Airframe included a 21 frame, 9 of which have been reinforced. The thickness of the corrugated paneling in the main was 0.3 mm, it is riveted to the flanges of sections open method. In the lower part of the frame 2 placed fuselage spar made of pipes.

Winged pride of Russia (Part Three) - TB-1

Plumage bombers TB-1 was a cantilever, all control surfaces were equipped with horny compensation. The stabilizer can be controlled in flight. The angle of installation can be changed using the steering wheel, which is to the right of the left pilot. The aircraft was equipped with 12-cylinder water-cooled engines BMW VI or M-17 in Russia. In the operation of the machine allow for the introduction of the 1st motor M-17 and 1st BMW VI. The engines were run using avtostartera or compressed air and, if necessary, in hand, the method of unwinding spindle. Propellers designs TsAGI wood, two-bladed, counter-clockwise rotation. The diameter of the screws is 3.3 meters. They are made of ash or oak and supplied fittings of duralumin.

The plane had 10 petrol tanks with a total capacity — 2100 liters., All tanks were combined into a single system. Tanks in the wing of the aircraft were suspended on iron strips with felt pads. Each engine than the rest of the oil tank was equipped with a special 56 l., Which was placed in motogandole for the firewall.

Chassis TB-1 was mated to the pyramidal type and a rubber cord depreciation. The wheels were spitsevymi. Initially used imported from other countries wheels of "Palmer" 1,250 by 250 mm, and later Russian of 1,350 by 300 mm. In the rear fuselage housed iron spike, having a rubber cushioning. Winter tires bombers could be changed on skis. Also, instead of the wheel landing gear on aircraft could be set floats, skid when all this was filmed. TB-1, the rig floats received supplemental floating and bottom anchor, mooring fittings and gaff.

Winged pride of Russia (Part Three) - TB-1
Cockpit

In the front cabin was installed airspeed indicator, altimeter, compass, AN-2, watch "Jaeger", the temperature gauge for determining the temperature of the outside air and other equipment. In the cockpit are blinkers, and sliding speed, altimeter, a tachometer 2, AL-1 compass, clock, 2 temperature gauge for oil and water, and from 2 petrol and oil pressure gauge. At the rear of the cabin was located altimeter, compass, AN-2, speed indicator and a clock.

Radio equipment bombers included a short-transmitting-receiving telegraph and telephone exchange 11SK created for communication with the aerodrome radio stations at long range, as the station 13SP, which served to receive the beacons. Both can work with tight, pull up between the uprights on the wing, as the exhaust antenna. Electrical equipment consisted of navigation lights and code, 2-landing lights, night lights in the cockpit. Aircraft is powered from the mains and radio. Provide current battery and alternator PM-9.

Small arms bombers included three twin set with 7.62-mm machine guns. First it was the English 'Lewis' arr. 1924, and later Russian YES. Machine guns mounted on turrets Tour-5 (feed, rolled from side to side) and the Tour-6 (nasal). The total weight of the bomb load could be up to 1030 kg. Likely variations in loading were 16 bombs caliber 32, 48 or 82 kg in the bomb bay. Or up to 4 bombs weighing 250 kg. the outer suspension. The aircraft was equipped with German bombsight Hertz FI.110.

Winged pride of Russia (Part Three) - TB-1
The nose turret Tour-6 with 2 machine guns, "Lewis"

Bomber crew consisted of 5-6 people: the first pilot, the second pi
lot (when flying with the longest duration), 3 scorer and shooter. Functions of the 1st of the shooters could make the flight mechanic.

Operation

TB-1 bomber pretty quickly mastered the staff of the Air Force. May 1, 1930 bombers took part in the May Day parade in Moscow. Group languid bombers passed over the formation of the Red Square. The second time the plane was shown to the public on July 6 at the Central Airport, where the handover ceremony was performed festive BBC new machines that were considered present for the XVI Congress of the CPSU (b).

TB-1 bomber pilots like. The car was stable in all flight regimes and, without looking at their large size, could produce quite profound turns up to 70-75 degrees. It is true in all of this occurred minor vibration wing tips, which were considered safe. Takeoff was as simple as planting. In the transition from R-1 to TB-1 pilots only had to get used to the modern control column. TB-1 can be operated quite successfully and on uneven ground. The only drawback of severe aircraft confessed limited review for pilots during taxiing and take-off at the very beginning. Very long nose of the aircraft will cover the whole front. Right pilot beheld only that right, left — to the left. Because the airfield taxiing made by the teams of the navigator, which stood in the lumen of the front machine gun turret. Approach also carried out on the basis of where the pilot was sitting: the right pilot was making a right turn, left, respectively, left.

Cabs bombers were cramped for the crew with the use of winter clothing for receiving a fur coat, boots and gloves. It is necessary to recognize that in an open cockpit airplane in cool weather was pretty uncomfortable. In cold weather the pilots had to hide his face behind a mask of a special wool and goose fat to lubricate the skin.

Winged pride of Russia (Part Three) - TB-1
TB-1 (D-1) in the head branch museum of the history of civilian aviation

"Finest hour" for the TB-1 was the summer of 1932. By August 25 of this year, Air Force possessed 203 aircraft of this type, a third of them were based in the Capital military environment. But since 1932 illumine bomber crews have begun to rearm in the new four-engine bombers TB-3. By the spring of 1933 the Air Force had only four squadrons armed with these aircraft. On May Day parade in 1933 TB-3 in the sky was already 2 times more than the TB-1. Evenly twin-engine bomber was displaced to the role of transport and training aircraft. The pilot, who did not pass on their training, was not allowed to fly on a new four-giants.

Age of TB-1 in the Red Army was rather short-lived. Since 1935, TB-1 began airing in the Navy civilian clothes or completely written off. With the remaining machines in the Air Force was shot weapons. And used them in flight schools that trained pilots, navigators and gunners for the bombers. On April 1, 1936 at training schools were 26 similar machines. For all this they could not get off the ground, for example, in the 4th school in Irkutsk aviation technicians none of the 4 existing aircraft could not take off. On 25 September 1940 the Air Force had a total of 28 TB-1.

The performance properties of BT-1:
Dimensions: wingspan — 28.7 m, length — 18.0 m
Wing area — 120 square meters. m
Aircraft weight, kg.
— Empty — 4520
— normal take-off — 6810
— maximum take-off — 7750
Motor Type — 2 PD M-17, 680 hp each
The highest speed — 207 km / h
Cruising speed — 178 km / h
Most range — 1000 km.
Service ceiling — 4,830 m
Crew — 6 people.
Armament: 6×7 ,62-mm machine guns PV-1 and up to 1,000 kg. bombs.

Sources used:
www.airwar.ru/enc/bww1/tb1.html
www.opoccuu.com/tb-1.htm
Proceedings of the free online encyclopedia "Wikipedia"

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