January 30, 1995 the UN General Assembly proclaimed 17 June as World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought, on the anniversary of the adoption of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, June 17, 1994.
Desertification — it is a problem of global significance, which has serious implications for the international environmental security, poverty eradication, social and economic stability and sustainable development.
According to the report of the Global Environment Outlook-4, from dryland ecosystems vary the order of two billion people, 90% live in developing countries. In the world in the category of drylands are more than 30% of the total land area. Approximately 30% of drylands degraded, and they are particularly vulnerable to desertification. If we take the world as a whole, the year as a result of land degradation — mainly soil erosion — caused by unsustainable land use and climate change, lost 20000 50000 square meters of land.
The consequences of desertification and drought include food security, hunger and poverty. Related social, economic and political tensions could lead to conflicts, further poverty and increase land degradation. Exacerbate desertification worldwide threatens to increase by millions the number of poor people who are forced to seek new homes and livelihoods.
Address this issue is devoted to the Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and / or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (1994). The main attention was paid to the improvement and restoration of soil fertility, as well as the protection and rational use of land and water resources. It stresses the importance of creating an enabling environment for the local people to help them deal with the depletion of the soil. It also provides criteria for the affected countries develop national action programs and conducts an unprecedented role of non-governmental organizations in the development and implementation of action programs.
Assistance to combat desertification have various UN agencies. UNDP finances measures to combat desertification through in Nairobi (Kenya) The Center for dryland development. International Fund for Agricultural Development has sent over more than 27 years, 3.5 billion dollars in projects for development of arid lands. World Bank organizes and funds programs to protect fragile arid lands and increase their agricultural productivity. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to promote sustainable agricultural development by providing a broad practical assistance to governments. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) supports regional action programs, data evaluation, capacity building and public awareness about the problem.
The problem of desertification and drought exists in Russia. The total area of soil of our country prone to desertification or potentially dangerous in this respect, is variously estimated from 50 to 100 million hectares. This Volga region, the Caucasus, Baikal, Kalmykia, Astrakhan region.
World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought in the country, along with other states, environmentalists and champions of the environment reinforce the soil, planted forest plantations, as well as teach classes for youth awareness of the need to combat desertification and drought.
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