Really and truly, our lives mysteriously subject to the "magic" the laws of the account?
July 14, 1974 in Bermuda taxi driver crushed to death 17-year-old Neville Ebbina who was riding on a city street on a moped. Exactly one year later, July 14, 1975, on the same street on the same moped riding brother Neville — Erskine Ebbin, who recently turned 17 years old. And it is also on this street got killed by a taxi! Not only that, the taxi was the same as under the wheels of the death of Neville, and the same driver. But this is not enough! In the taxi, the same passenger sitting as a year ago, when the fatal collision on the older brother.
Such coincidences unwittingly give rise to the belief that our lives are somehow mysteriously subject to the "magic" laws of existence. Faith that it would be better to call superstition. Especially, it can be seen on the example of manipulation of numbers, the most "rock" among which is the number 13.
Interpretation of stars studied astrology, handwriting — graphology at hand reading palmistry and numbers and numbers — the Diocese of numerologists. Due to the special "flair" of the latter, for example, it is known that the number 46 is inherent in some mysterious force. Justification that is very simple: in the English translation of the 46th Psalm 46th word "shake", and the 46th word from the end of "spear". Together, it turns out "Shakespear". Why? Yes, because in 1610, when performed this translation, Shakespeare was just 46 years old.
A special thrill from numerologists is famous apocalyptic "Number of the Beast" 666, a favorite theme of many scientists and pseudo-scientists treatises.
Whence came the belief in a "holy" force of numbers? Its origins in the VI century BC. e., when the fabled Pythagoras, the "father of numerology." He left us his famous doctrine of the harmony of numbers, the immortality of the soul and the people's desire for justice and friendship. We know many of his research: the prime number, about proportions and other complex problems. To spread his ideas, he created a school where allowed and women.
School united more than 600 people, but there were also supporters of the secret teachings. All they thought if numbers have absolute power over all the events over all living creatures. The Pythagoreans passionately argued that reality is a number. This idea has reached full bloom in the first half of the V century BC
Such a fascination with numbers is maintained for a long time, advances in measurement, such as length. Until the French Revolution, when introduced metric measures the length measured everything: thumb span, elbow, foot, "toise" (human growth).
When it was possible to measure this or that thing, thought that she had already learned. Thus, the numbers are the main tool for learning. But that's not all. If something is measured by steps and fingers, they do so not because these measures are at hand. Between them there is clearly a fixed relationship. For example, one "toise" is six feet, one foot and twelve fingers. These relations form a complete system — "canon". His sculpture embodies Pythagorean Polycleitus: statue of a man was created on the principle of perfect harmony and visibly represented a system of numbers, says "Apple» (http://www.cofe.ru/apple/article.asp?AID=2244).
This system allows you to do truly amazing things. They say it has helped Pythagoras measure the growth of Hercules. And that's how he did it. Hercules with your feet measure off track Olympic Stadium. But the stadium was more than all the others. Consequently, it is possible to determine the ratio between the length of the track and the Olympic Stadium track stadium normal. It turns ratio, which allows you to determine the size of the foot of Hercules on the size of the foot in a normal person. Finally, thanks to the "canon" that is, the general system of measures, made it easy to calculate the height of Hercules on the basis of the size of his feet. Conclusion: using the numbers can penetrate the mysteries of history. Not surprisingly, the "magic numbers" literally fascinated people. By unraveling the secrets of the success stories were added in the field of technology. According to Vitruvius, the architect of the Emperor Augustus, Pythagoras created the first "angle bracket" for masons. It was a right triangle with sides, respectively, 3 and 4 and the hypotenuse of 5 units. With the help of this device is built stairs. Suppose you need to build up the stairs three steps. Stairs corresponded to human growth, we had to start from a distance of three steps, in accordance with the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle required five steps …
Especially the "stir" the Pythagoreans in the construction of temples and theaters, giving them a special acoustic properties using special devices. The Pythagoreans developed the concept of "sound wave". They realized that the sound travels in circles, like the waves diverging on the water surface of the lake by a stone thrown at him. Moreover, they discovered that "the image wave" on the surface of the lake to be interpreted not only in a plane, but volumetrically. In addition, it was necessary to represent the spherical waves corresponding to the sounds of different heights. However, he created Pythagoras musical scale which is written as: 1, 3/2, 4/3, 2. These figures correspond to a fifth, quart, octave. Therefore, it was enough to place in the theater of copper or bronze vases tuned a fourth, fifth, etc. And when a wave of "hits" on these vases, it is reflected and amplified. With these first "speaker" Pythagoreans achieved unprecedented success. What was to reinforce the idea that the essence of things is a number.
Plato was the first who began to question the Pythagorean view of the world, and then it went on Aristotle. In his discussion, he used a simple, but very illustrative examples. Retell one of his arguments in the modern version. Suppose you ask, how did you recover from the flu? You reply was drinking a cocktail. Then you ask, how you shake cured? And you say, because in the cocktail is the number 3 — one-third of gin, tonic-third and one third of juice. That, they say, the number 3 you and cured. This explanation may make you think that the cure is the number 3, and not a cocktail. (Of course, that Aristotle uses the example of mead). Yet Aristotle could not completely defeat the Pythagoreans. Their ideas were maintained even during the Renaissance, when there was a massive craze antiquity, its aesthetic norms, including the ideas of the Pythagoreans. An example may serve as a canon of Leonardo da Vinci. Then it seems to be abated. But supporters of the doctrine of Pythagoras have survived to the present day. There are followers of numerology, which are still digging in the archives in search of ancient manuscripts and books about the secrets of wonderful numbers. And in everyday belief in the "magic numbers" has become a common superstition.
Cycles of "male" and "female"
From superstition was not free, even the great rationalist Sigmund Freud. But for this he had at least a scientific study — a "reflection of his own subconscious desire for immortality." The father of psychoanalysis has long feared to die at 51. The idea that inspired him a close friend, the physician Wilhelm Fleece, who believed that all the important dates in human life boil down to numbers 28 and 23 are interpreted as the length of their "feminine and masculine cycles." Fleece is usually used derivative of both key numbers that he, depending on the situation, to add or subtract. Such surveys are so fascinated Freud that his friend, he declared, "Kepler in biology."
When Freud, still survived in 1907 (the "year of death"), he immediately "admitted the" isolated him 8 years ago, the phone number 14362. As was already 43 years old, he had no doubt that with the end of his life in some way connected last two digits of the telephone number. Freud decided that he would die at the age of 62 years, however, as we know, he lived right up to the 83's.
And yet, "Flis figures" are present in the biographies and Freud, himself. So, Fleece died in 1928, while Freud died on September 23. But, of course, from a scientific point of view, the theory Flis of "male and female series" 28 and 23 contained in his book, "The flow of life" is simply absurd, but to this day it willingly refer to supporters of the theory of biorhythms.
Many are also attracted by the idea that any global events in history are cyclical. For example, there are people who advocate the theory of the 24-year cycle of Russian history (1893 — accession of Nicholas II; 1917 — Revolution, 1941 — The Great Patriotic War, 1985 — care of the old Communist Party leaders call).
The biographers of the composer Richard Wagner came to believe that his life determined by the number 13. The composer was born in 1813 and died on February 13. His theater at Bayreuth was opened on August 13. Wagner wrote 13 operas, his name (the German spelling) consists of 13 letters, and the sum of digits of the year of his birth (1 +8 +1 +3) is also equal to 13. Weber's opera "Der Freischütz", which has had an enormous influence on Wagner, was held on October 13. Wagner's opera "Tannhauser" fiasco in Paris March 13, 1861, it was rehabilitated in the same May 13, 1895 Riga Theatre, in which Wagner began his service conductor, opened September 13, 1837, while working on the opera "Tannhauser" composer completed April 13, 1844-th. Wagner spent 13 years in exile. The last day, they lived in Bayreuth, September 13. Franz Liszt last visited Wagner in Venice January 13, 1883, and a year of Wagner's death was the 13th year of German unity.
All this information is taken from published in 1913 (!) "Book of 1000 Wonders."
According to the survey, the number 13 considered "bad" every third Russian. If the winning number is also on Friday, there's superstitious people generally come in peace awe. The only consolation for these accidents is only their own confidence in the "relative scarcity" of this unfortunate coincidence of numbers and days of the week. In fact, every year there is at least one Friday, which coincides with the 13th of the month. Sometimes such coincidence occurs annually two but not more than three.
A few years ago, the UN announced a competition to create a new calendar, which will replace the current one, Gregorian — according to experts, imperfect as half, quarters and months, contain a different number of days, and the beginning of the month falls on different days of the week. All of this causes some inconvenience in accounting and the preparation of plans and schedules for the production of financial and economic activity. Among the possible projects of the new calendar — the so-called "global mirror-symmetric permanent calendar." Each month of the calendar composed of four weeks (28 days). Each quarter, the year begins with another, more "quarterly weeks." Quarterly week should begin every season — winter, spring, summer, autumn. Thus, in each quarter are 91 day, and year of — 364. In the "mirror-symmetric" calendar Friday always correspond to 5, 12, 19 and 26th of every month and every quarter of the year. So, the fatal combination "13 Friday" will disappear forever from the life of mankind.
In France, for example, you can hire a professional '14th guest "just in case if it is a dinner party gathered 13 participants. And in England at banquets decided to put on the 13th chair teddy bear, which was removed only after all when rassyadutsya in places.
Dislike of the 13th and the guest is found in Norse mythology. At a feast in Valhalla attended by 12 gods, but with the advent of Loki, the 13th in a row, there was a quarrel, which cost the life of everybody's favorite Balder. His death served as a harbinger of death of the gods and the world.
Another version is based on the prevalence of playing cards in the Middle Ages. As in the current bridge, a deck was then four suits of 13 cards. As addicted to the card game turns around for many losses or ruin, the opponents cards called them not only as "the devil's prayer."
Maybe, "the case of the number of 13" has its roots in more ancient times. The ancient Greek poet Hesiod's poem "Works and Days" urged not to start sowing the field on the 13th, and the Mycenaean king Agamemnon was killed by treacherous hands of his wife Clytemnestra is 13th.
Since ancient Babylon, now in 12 was considered a sacred number. According to the zodiac year is divided into 12 months, and day and night by 12 hours. Exceeding this mark was perceived as a bad sign, hence — still preserved the phrase "baker's dozen."
In some countries, given the superstition of people are trying to "trick" the arithmetic. In the U.S., many hotels no 13th floor, 13th numbers, etc. This means that with the number "12" is immediately followed by "14". And in a number of U.S. airlines airplanes find the 13th number is no less difficult than the 13th floor of a skyscraper. In Germany, there are express trains, cars 12 and 14, but not the car 13.
An American from Massachusetts triskaidekafobiya — fear of the number 13 — has led even to divorce after 12 years of marriage. And at the end of the 13th, he again married the former wife. However, Mr. superstitious still prefers not to go out of the house every month on the 13th, for fear of accident and quickly flips through the 13th page in the magazines.
Like the superstition around the number 13, there is also the fear of Friday as a day of the week. Possible reasons include the following. Gospel According to tradition Jesus was crucified on a Friday. Adam and Eve seem to have tasted of the tree of knowledge, bringing sin into the world, again on Friday. On the same day, as it is believed, and they both died. Should not be excluded and the possible correlation with the already mentioned the ill-fated meal in Valhalla. "Inviting party" then there was the goddess of marriage and love Freya, which gave not only the life of the prematurely deceased Balder, but also the name of the fifth day of the week ("Freitag", "Friday").
The most famous victims of the "Friday of superstition" were Napoleon and Bismarck. They say that the emperor never spent battles, as the Chancellor did not sign the papers on Friday. A similar talk about the American oil magnate J. Paul Getty field.
A similar phenomenon exists and is described in the literature. The classic example — when investors fear a sharp fall in the begin feverishly to sell shares, with the result that actually leads to the collapse of the stock market.
Fortunately, on Friday, and the number 13 is said and written not only the bad. Thus, the Hindus and Muslim countries Friday is a happy day, on the most frequently prescribed wedding. But the sound of a German proverb: "On Friday, fell in love — soon got married." For many people, Friday is pleasant that means the eve of the weekend. "Thank God, already Friday!" — Like to say the Anglo-Saxons. Abbreviation of the phrase even TGI Friday's restaurant chain was named.
Kabbalah says the number 13 is particularly favorable. Indeed, in Hebrew (as well as in Arabic) 13 — the numerical value of the word "Ahad" ("Somebody") In addition, from the second book of Moses can be found 13 divine qualities. It is also noteworthy that in medieval Christianity as a combination of 13, 10 (commandments) and 3 (Trinity) was perceived as exclusively positive. And for the French king Louis XIII is the number of all was the favorite. Maybe that's why he married Anne of Austria, when one is 13 years old. In theory, "unhappy" nature of the number 13 has many supporters. However, none of them remembers it, when it comes to getting a Christmas bonus.