January 4, 2012 13:43
Several hundred years of world science centers — Universities are struggling with decoding "Celtic problem."
In world history, the name stuck for the numerous tribes who inhabited the territory of Europe. On a modern map of the Celtic tribes would take over France, the British Isles, Austria, Switzerland, much of Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. The most important tribes of the Celts were Helvets, Belgium, Sequani, lingony, edui, bituringi, Arverne, allobrogi, Senonian, Trever, bellovaki.
Magic held an important place in the life of the ancient Celts. In early religious teachings Gauls nature and the elements endowed with powers of divination. In addition to the forces of nature Gauls worshiped the image of the hero. In rank deity built the great war is endowed with "the power of the sun, its rays striking the souls of enemies."
The greatest power of the Celts reached during the La Tène culture, which lasted about five centuries preceding the birth of Christ. At the beginning of the 5th century. BC Celts began their expansion in all directions. They occupied Gaul, northern Italy and most of Spain (mixed with the Iberians, they formed the people here called Celtiberians). Another wave of conquerors reached the British Isles, where some Celtic tribes, known as the Britons, anchored by two or three centuries earlier. About 400 BC hordes of Celts, whom the Romans called Gauls invaded Italy and broke the Etruscans. About 387 BC Celts, which were headed by Brenn, captured Rome, and seven months later, they received a ransom, left the city, but kept under his rule most of northern Italy.
Simultaneously, other Celtic tribes moved into the lower reaches of the Danube and the Balkans. About 280 BC Celtic wave washed over Macedonia and Thessaly, reaching Phocis, but a year later, the Aetolians with allies drove them out of Greece. Then the Celts, who were joined by new tribes conquered Thrace, crossed the Hellespont and captured a large part of Asia Minor. In 232 BCE king of Pergamum Attalus I caused them a series of defeats and drove them into internal north-eastern provinces of Asia Minor, which has since become known as the Galatians (Celts here called the Galatians). Other Celtic tribes went to the northern Black Sea coast.
The people there was a belief about the relationship with the gods of the Celts, which are also found among the ancient Irish, who considered themselves "Tuatha de Creep" — the children of God. The main god of the Celts considered Taranis — the master of lightning. It can be compared with the Roman Jupiter, the Thunderer and the Slavic Perun.
Enjoyed great popularity as a god Bel. Under his patronage were all the knowledge of the Celts. Feast of St. Bela celebrated on May 1. During festive ceremonies ignited firewood, rose to the sky, "the May fires" These lights illuminate the path along which cattle were driven. In the evening around the campfire set various merrymaking and dancing. The tradition of celebrating "May Day" remained in Europe to this day. Bela was a sacred symbol of mistletoe growing on oak.
This is how Pliny the ritual associated with mistletoe, "This happens to find mistletoe very rarely, and when it seek out, then shoot, arranging a large religious ceremony, on the sixth day of the moon — as it is on this luminary Gauls consider their months and years of his life, as well as their age, length of thirty years. This day is chosen because the moon is in it already has sufficient power, although not yet reached the middle of its growth. They call mistletoe name meaning "the one that heals everything." After cooking at the foot of the tree to perform all the necessary sacrifices and ceremonial meal, bring two white bulls. Pets are not tied, but they stand still. Priest — Druid, dressed in white robes, standing on a tree with a golden sickle cuts the mistletoe, which is collected in a white cloak. After this, the Druids slaughtered sacrificial animals in the same sickle, which was cut mistletoe, praying at the same god, that it has made a sacrifice for the grace of those for whom it is brought. They believe that mistletoe if to make her drink, cures cattle from infertility and is against all poisons. "
The war was an integral part of the life of the Celts. A place of honor valor keeper stood Bel tukador and goddess — Belisama warrior. Special treatment of soldiers to life and death expressed in absolute fearlessness in battle and no terror before the abyss of nothingness, coming after the fatal injury. For the soldiers — the Gauls after the great victory was above all wealth. Philosophy Celtic warriors prepared to die for years. Vanguard Celtic troops consisted of naked tattooed warriors, drawing on the bodies which inspired fear enemy. The predominant color was blue coloring, the sacred color of the earth. According to the customs body Gauls heroically killed in combat soldiers burned. Solemn procession marched in huge bonfires around which the Druids took their seats. After the ritual songs and poems praising speeches to the dead and burned their bodies. The Celts believed that the souls of the warriors fell burning into the other world. In the last journey together with the remains of soldiers sent to them in all the "other life" things.
Earth in understanding the Gauls was a great value, which is the goal to protect the life of each of the Celts. Protector of the earth, God — Lug (Lear). Grasslands Irish holiday celebrated on August, praising God, the giver of fertility and harvest. One of the most ancient gods of the Celtic horned god Cernunnos was — the master of the animal world. It is also called the god of the hunt.
A fundamental principle of life Celts water. This life-giving substance to the Gauls became a cult. Many rivers of Western Europe were named in honor of Celtic goddesses, sponsors of fertility. Sung owes its name to the goddess Sekvane. According to sources, Seine Valley was considered sacred. Many statues found in the excavations, were sacrificed to the goddess. River Severn and Clyde got its name from the goddess Sabrina and Kloten. Marne River was named in honor of the holy triad Matron, guardians of female honor.
Important place in the religious and mythological traditions of the Celts took the number three. Matron triad of goddesses, which were addressed to hundreds of rock paintings, managed the process of birth, life and death. Celts feared wrath of the triad, was renowned for his cruelty to the disobedient. Matrons depicted as young women and old women. In Ireland, they were called the Morrigan, Macha and Ba. One of the most common patterns that occur in the figurative monuments is tritsefal — a deity with three heads or three persons. Such as the north-east Gaul three-headed deity worship was common in Celtic tribe and their neighbors Remov suessinov. Reims was found near the stele, which depicts tritsefal placed on top of the gods. A near Treves, dominated by the cult of Matron found two sites, which show the three goddesses, and she is in the center, stands defeated god with three faces, and shall tread it down. Besides the Celts in the images of their gods triple the most precious part of the human body — the head, they also tend to combine them into a triad.
The Druids believed in the great power of words. According to them the secret word, a source of sacred power, infinite power-giving in the spirit world. Sometimes meetings druids verbal spells, spoken aloud, the subject of competition. Competition in the poet's words of witch led to the fact that the winner into a deep trance. According to their beliefs, is able to open the druids way to communicate with the world of the dead and bestowed the gift of prophecy.
Therefore, the Celts were mostly bards, begins the way priests druids. Beginner bard studied in detail the wisdom of poetry, philosophy, secret language ogham, rhetoric and laws of the tribe. Then the bard had to learn ways of shifting the surrounding events in poetic form. The most talented students dedicated to the mysteries of magic, learned spells-giving spiritual power of foresight. Some of the most outstanding Celts managed to get a high rank druid. A simple way to the heights of Celtic Druids caste lasted up to 20 years or more.
If you look closely, you can see that in fact the island of Ireland is inhabited by two peoples.
They live Irish, and someone else, whom, lowering his voice, usually say "good people" and "good people": they say that those who inhabited Ireland before there were people. Tourists, of course, will not experience this part of life in Ireland, which requires to be blood from the blood and flesh of the flesh of the land.
But another opportunity to come into contact with the mystery still is — this is music.
In Irish tradition is often referred to "another world", in which music and harmony reigns. They even say that all true music comes precisely from this — Other — the world. But if in some places of the world are afraid and trying to distance itself from it, in Ireland it has always been recognized part of life, and most of the music of Green Island echoed the music of this "other world." Even Saint Patrick, the saint who baptized Ireland, met Kaskorahom musician who came from there. And do not condemn it, not ban his monks to listen to the music, but only warned them, saying, "We should not overly attached to this music." He knew that the power of music "old people" — is very real.
Often talks about a particularly talented musician, who at the time were abducted in this "other world", and there they were playing music and received his musical education: learn special techniques of games and ringtones. For example, a talented harpist and poet Koraynn in reward for his music has been blessed by the residents of "another world" and even a piece of land there. Sometimes the composer was on a special hill, which fell into a prophetic dream in a dream, or even heard the music of words for their future songs. Near Portree on the Isle of Skye in Scotland, there is a hill, they say that those who are around him at night, hear wonderful music wafting as if out of the ground. A cave in Fraysgall Saverlende often hear the music, similar to an organ, which is reached from the vaults of the cave, and its unusual nothing happens. Told that in Oranmore, County Galway, lived not so long ago, one piper called Flannery, whose "good people" took their land, to educate his musical techniques and when he came back, it was the best piper of Ireland, but not for long — died young, because the "good people" wanted him to come back to them as soon as possible.
Karen Ralls-MacLeod writes in his book "Music and the Celtic Otherworld" — "all the musicians, just because they are artists, are connected to the source of music, located in the" Other World ". In the ancient legends of people overhearing music "older people" turned out to be so fascinated by her that came out from under the hand of time. Now it is difficult to say how things were before, but I can assure you of one thing: I happened to be present at these concerts, and — so far lasted for a concert — no time does not exist. The magic of music woven into a listener's mind a picture of enchanting beauty, which could be no words, no thoughts — just admiration for the fact that such beauty is possible. So what on earth is the magic happens, the real miracles, and — as long as they occur — we can continue to view themselves as people in China.
"The inhabitants of Britain, at some remote period of time revived and reformed their national institutions. Their priest, or instructor, still bore the name Gvidd, had divided his parish priest among the highest national and other priests, whose influence is more limited. The first was called Dervidd (Druid), or superior instructor, and the second — Go-or O-Vidd Vidd (Ovate), lower teacher. As soon as the system has grown and matured, the Order of Bards was divided into three classes: Druid, Baird Breynt or privileged Bards, and Ovates. "
The origin of the word "Druid" is still being discussed. Max Müller believes that like the Irish Druja word, it means "people of the oak trees." He further draws attention to the fact that the forest gods and tree deities of Greece called dryads. Some believed the word Teutonic origin, others considered it belongs Welsh. Someone raises a word of Gallic drudh, which means "wise man" or "magician." In Sanskrit, which, for me, the most interesting, the other word means "forest."
During the Roman conquest of the Druids settled everywhere across Gaul and Britain. Their power over the people was not disputed, and there have been occasions when the army, ready to lunge at each other, laid down their arms at the behest dressed in white robes Druid. No important company did not begin without the aid or assistance of these patriarchs, who were intermediaries between gods and men. Order of Druids deservedly revered for its deep understanding of the laws of Nature. Druids knew medicine, especially herbs and medicinal plants. In England and Ireland is roughly surgical instruments. In old English treatise on ancient medicine prescribed medication every practitioner to have around the garden with the necessary practice for its plants. Eliphas Levi, a prominent transcendentalist, makes the following remarkable statement:
"The Druids were the priests and doctors who treated magnetism and amulets with their fluids. Versatile tools were snake eggs and mistletoe, as they attract astral light. The solemnity with which mistletoe is cut, says that the people rooted belief in its magnetic properties … Progress in the study of magnetic phenomena, sooner or later we will open the absorbing properties of mistletoe. We then understand the unusual properties of the foam plant from which make tinctures and decoctions. Mushrooms, truffles, growths on trees and various Omel be consciously used in medical science, and it will be a new old … but you should not go faster than science, which rejects that can advance its thing "(Eliphas Levi," The History of Magic ")
Mistletoe is considered sacred not only because it is a symbol of the universal medicine, or panacea, but also because it grows on oak. Oak Druids symbolizing the Deity, and so all that grew on it, it was sacred. At certain times of the year, at certain positions of the sun, moon and stars, the Chief Druid climbed the oak tree and cut the mistletoe sacred special knife. Parasitic plant wraps specially prepared for the occasion a white sheet, so that it did not touch the ground and is not transmitting earth vibrations. Normally this under the tree was sacrificed a white bull.
Druids were initiates of the secret schools that resembled the Bacchic and Eleusinian Mysteries of Greece, as well as the cult of Isis and Osiris in Egypt, and therefore can legitimately be called the mystery of the druids. There were many guesses as to whether a secret wisdom of the Druids, which was attributed to them. Their secret teachings were never written down, but passed from mouth to mouth specially selected candidates. This is — at the very beginning and the opening of this post, where I mentioned this in passing. Robert Brown believed that the Druids got their knowledge from the Phoenicians of Tyre and navigators who, thousands of years before the Christian era, frowning founded in Gaul and Britain, the colony in search of tin.
Thomas Maurice, in his "Indian Antiquities" extensively discusses the Phoenician, Carthaginian and Greek expeditions to the British Isles for tin. Other researchers believe that Mr. Druids were of Oriental origin, possibly a Buddhist. When I'm in the profiles on other sites I write, that I — "Celtic-Buddhist guy," I'm hardly inclined to joke. The most interesting feature in the decoration of garments Arch-Druid was iodhan moran — breastplate of justice, which has a mysterious power of strangling anyone who, having it on her neck, lying. Godfrey Higgins states that this breastplate worn on the neck of a witness to verify the truth of what was said to them.
Represent, and our super-science only in the last century came to "polygraph" — a lie detector that is less than perfect, and trick it to the person with certain abilities not very difficult. This has already been Hollywood movies nasnimal Tiara Druid "anguinum" is embossed front of the points representing the sun, which indicates that the priest personification of the rising sun. The front of the Arch-Druid belt is liath meisicith — magic brooch, set into the center of a large white stone. He is credited with the power of extracting Skyfire team priest. This specially cut stone was a magnifying glass, which Arch-Druid fire burned on the altar.
Druids were other symbolic objects, such as a curious form of a golden sickle, which was cut from the oak mistletoe, and a scepter in the shape of a crescent — the symbol of the sixth day of the growing moon. Initiation into the Druidic Mysteries during the midnight ceremony was achieved through a glass boat called Cwrwg Gwydrin. This boat represents the moon, which, sailing through the waters of Eternity, protects the seeds of living creatures within lodkoobraznogo crescent.
The proximity of the British Isles to the lost Atlantis may be the explanation of Sun worship, which played an important role in the rituals of the Druids. Ceres and Persephone worshiped on the islands close to the British, and the rituals themselves were similar to those practiced on Samothrace. There is no doubt that the Druidic pantheon included a large number of Greek and Roman gods. This situation is incredibly amazed Caesar during his conquest of Gaul and Britain, and was the reason for the claim that the local tribes worshiped Mercury, Apollo, Mars and Jupiter in the same way as is done in Latin countries. It seems indisputable that the Mysteries were borrowed from the Britons or the Gauls, and are descended from more ancient civilizations.
School of the Druids was divided into three parts, and the secret teachings of virtually identical mysteries hidden in allegories Blue Masonic Lodge. The lowest of the three parts of a school Ovates (Ovidd). It was an honorary degree, requiring no special purification or preparation. Ovates dressed in green clothes, the color that the Druids meant teaching, and they knew something of medicine, astronomy, poetry and music. Ovate belonged to people admitted to the Order of Druids due to overall good features and excellent knowledge of the problems of life.
The second school belonged Bards (Baird). They were dressed in sky-blue, which means harmony and truth, and the work was entrusted to them by memorizing 20,000 (!) Verses of the poetry of the Druids. They are often depicted with simplified British or Irish harp, strings of which were human hair, and their number is equal to the number of ribs in humans. Bards of Teachers selected candidates who wish to join the Mystery of the Druids. Neophytes wore striped clothes — blue-green and white — the three sacred colors of the Order.
The third school was actually from the Druids. They satisfied the "religious needs" of the people. To achieve this status, they had to first go through a stage of Bards. Druids were always dressed in white — the color of purity, the color used by them to symbolize the sun. In order to reach the degree of Chief Druid, or spiritual head of the organization, for the priest had to go through six degrees of the Order of Druids. (By the way, forum users — about dreams and their ilk — Druids different degrees distinguish color hood, because they all wore white robes.) Some author believe that the title of chief druid was hereditary and passed from father to son, but the majority still believes that this "post" was elective. And he was elected for his virtue and integrity of the environment the most learned members of the Order of the highest degree.
In Britain it was usually two main druid, one of them — in England, and the other — in Ireland. Perhaps they were still in Gaul. Their Majesties had a golden scepter and a crown of oak leaves, symbolizing their position. Young members of the Order were clean-shaven and modestly dressed, older — were luxurious beard and gorgeous jewelry. The education system in the Druids of Britain was better than their counterparts on the continent, and therefore many of the Gallic youths were sent to Britain for the philosophical learning and general training.
Eliphas Levi says that the Druids lived in abstinence, studied the natural sciences, a complete non-preferred and accepted new members only after long probationary period. Many members of the Order lived in the monasteries vevsma similar dwellings obedinyalisb in groups of ascetics, in the East (Northern India and Tibet). Although they are not required celibacy, few of them were married. Many Druids withdrew and lived in caves, huts, houses made of rough stone. Here they prayed and meditated, leaving only to perform magic rituals.
James Freeman Clarke, in his book "Ten Great Religions" describes the views of the Druids as follows: "The Druids believed in three worlds and in transmigration from one to another. In the upper world happiness prevails, in the lowest — misfortune, and the average world — is the real world. Relocation from one world to exist for the punishment and encouragement, as well as for the purification of the soul. In the real world, they say, good and evil are intertwined and so balanced that man has the freedom and the ability to choose between them. The Welsh Triads tell us that there are three types of metempsychosis: to collect in a single soul the properties of all things, all beings acquire knowledge and gain power over the devil. There are also three types of knowledge: the nature of each thing, causes and effects. There are three things that are constantly decreasing, — darkness, lies and death. There are three things that are constantly increasing, — light, life and truth. "
Like all mysteries, teachings of the Druids was divided into two parts. The simplest of these, the "moral code" taught to the common people, and the esoteric part was available only to the initiated. In order to be admitted into the Order, a candidate had come from a good family and have a high "moral" quality (the "morality" of the ancient Celts keep silent. It had nothing to do with the local impaled "Christian"). While the candidate has undergone various temptations and tests for strength of character, he does not trust any important secrets. The Druids taught the people of Gaul, Britain, Ireland and the immortality of the soul. They believed in reincarnation, and partly in the resurrection. They borrowed in one life, and promised to repay the debt to another. Hell is a punishment for "sins" and served as a purgatory, after which followed a happy reunion with the gods. Druids taught that all men should be saved and will be saved, but many must return to earth many times, until overcome the elements of evil.
Before a candidate confides the secret doctrine Druids, he swore an oath to keep secrets. These doctrines are open only in the deep forests and dark caves. In these places, far from human settlements, neophytes are educated as to the origin of the universe, personalities of the gods, the laws of Nature, the secrets of occult medicine, the mysteries of the heavenly bodies and the rudiments of magic and sorcery. The Druids had a great number of holidays. New and full moon periods were considered sacred. It was thought that to initiate appropriate days are only two solstices and the two equinoxes (I already wrote about it in a "tree"). Sunrise December 25 was celebrated as the birth of the Sun God.
Druid temples and other places of religious worship were not similar to those places in the other nations. Most ceremonies are held at night in the dense oak forests, or in the open, before the altar of unhewn stones erected. How to move these huge boulders are still not satisfactorily explained. The most famous of these altars — a huge ring of stones at Stonehenge, in south-west England. This construction is made on the basis of astronomical knowledge, is still standing. Truly, this is the miracle of the Ancient World.
Some believe that the teachings of the Druids steeped Pythagorean philosophy, and the "music" I did not knowingly spread slowly Pythagorean doctrine, which is considered one of the most silnyhosnov any magical practice. Druids was Madonna or Neporchnaya mother (when Christianity has no scent at least tens of thousands of years) with the Child in her arms, which was sacred to the Mysteries, and their Sun God brings to the days when Christians celebrate Easter.
The Cross and the Snake were sacred to the Druids. The cross was made of oak branches, which broke off from the trunk and form a shape in the form of the letter T (well-known as the Tau cross). These oak crosses are symbols of their supreme Deity. They also poklonyalisb sun, moon, and stars. Moon presenting them with special reverence. Caesar stated that Mercury was one of the principal deities of Gaul. Druids also worshiped this God in the form of a stone cube. They believed in nature spirits (fairies, gnomes, undines), forest dwellers and small rivers ("ancient" or "good" people in Irish), who makes offerings, and that very well communicated.
Describing the temples of the Druids, Charles Geketorn writes in his book "The Secret Society of all time." In their temples of the sacred fire was kept, and these temples were located in oak groves. Temples have a different shape, such as eggs, from which, according to the traditions of many nations, there was not only the universe, but also our ancestors. Churches were round, as a circle — a symbol of the universe. There were temples and a snake, because the snake was a symbol of Hu, Osiris Druids. The temples were in the form of a cross, because the cross was a symbol of rebirth. There were temples in the shape of wings, symbolizing the flight of the Divine Spirit … Their chief deities are generally reduced to two figures — a man and a woman, a great father and mother — Hu and Ceridwen (obvious analogues of Osiris and Isis, Bacchus and Tsertsery and any other high God and goddess representing the two principles of all existence).
Godfrey Higgins states that Hu, the Almighty, who was considered the first settler of Britain, came from a country called the Welsh Triad Summer Country (location of Constantinople). Albert Pike says that the Lost Word of Freemasonry concealed under the name of God Druids — XY. Even a little information about the secret initiations Druids definitely indicates that there is a similarity between the Druid Mysteries and the schools of Greece and Egypt. Hu, the Sun God, was murdered and after a number of strange rituals and mystical transformation was brought back to life.
It was three degrees Druid Mysteries, and few candidates successfully passed them. Candidates were placed in a coffin, symbolizing the death of the Sun God. The supreme test, however, was the departure of man in a boat in the open sea. Passing this test, many lost their lives. Taliesin, an ancient scholar, held Mysteries, describes the initiation of the open boat (in the book Faber "idols of the nations"). Those few who were third degree, considered "reborn to life", and they trusted the secret truths that priests Drood retained from ancient times. Initiated out of these many members of the British religious and political world.
The Book of Kells (early 9th century AD), a library, Trinity College Library, Dublin. The famous Irish (Celtic), decorated manuscript — The Book of Kells (Book of Kells) — is a religious manuscript containing the Four Gospels, performed on 340 sheets of parchment. The main value of a rich interior design book ornaments, miniatures, initials and so-called "Carpet pages" (which is a page completely filled ornamental patterns). The book dates from the year 810, and, according to one version, was written by monks from the island of Iona, lying on the west coast of Scotland. For a long time, the community was in Kells (Kells), from which it was called. Currently stored in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.