Early toxemia of pregnancy

Early and late toxicosis

The most important period of the I trimester of pregnancy is when there is a tab and the formation of all organs and systems of the child. But this pregnancy is often complicated by early toxicosis. According to statistics, every second expectant mother suffers from this disease. Many people mistakenly believe his norm, but it is not: toxemia — pathology.

Usually the word "early morning sickness" is meant only nausea, vomiting and drooling. Medical understanding of the word is somewhat different from the ordinary: a textbook on midwifery toxicosis are all the pathological changes in a woman's body, which may occur in the first trimester of pregnancy. These include not only nausea and vomiting, but some other unpleasant phenomena that occur much less frequently (dermatitis — skin lesions, tetany — muscle cramps, osteomalacia — softening of bones, jaundice, asthma pregnant women, etc.).


Despite numerous studies to find the cause of toxicity has not yet succeeded. But there are some hypotheses:

The most popular and the most reasonable theory of a toxicosis — the so-called neuroreflex theory, whereby a major role in disease development disorders relationships play a central nervous system and internal organs. Everyone knows that during pregnancy, many women become more moody, irritable, tearful. This is because while carrying the baby more intense than usual, beginning to work more historically "old" subcortical structures of the brain, whereas usually the person standing on the top step of evolution, is more active core. But subcortical structures form the majority of protective reflexes, and wise nature, protecting the pregnancy, makes this part of the brain expectant mother to work more efficiently. In the subcortical structures of the vomiting center is located, and the olfactory area and cells, to "manage" the internal organs, including the stomach, heart, blood vessels, lungs, salivary glands. Therefore, nausea and vomiting may be preceded by phenomena such as the deepening of breath, increased heart rate, increasing the number of saliva, pallor due to vasospasm.

Immune theory. The kid from the early days of fetal life is different from mothers in their antigenic composition body, to which a pregnant woman produces antibodies, allegedly causing toxemia.

Hormone Theory. In the body of a pregnant is significant hormonal changes. In particular, there is a new organ that produces hormones — placenta. The emergence of a new "leader" does not always like the nervous system and internal organs of a pregnant woman, and they react by symptoms of toxicity. In vomiting in pregnancy occurs in temporal coincidence with the peak onset of emesis content hCG (a hormone the placenta), often there is a decrease of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex.

Psychogenic theory. It is believed that morning sickness can be the result of negative emotions: fear for the baby, fear of childbirth.

Risk Factors

Although the toxicity of no one is immune, it is seen that most often it occurs in pregnant women with chronic illnesses gastrointestinal tract, liver, thyroid, as well as women who have had induced abortions, and chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs. Contributing factors are frequent nerve stress and poor diet, asthenic type of constitution. In addition, the expressed forms of early toxicity are more common in multiple pregnancies.

What are the symptoms?

The most common manifestation of toxicity — vomiting, which may occur at different times, depending on the severity of toxicity.

In less severe toxicosis vomiting is not more than 5 times per day or longer may be accompanied by the constant feeling of nausea. Vomiting occurs on an empty stomach, can be caused by eating food or unpleasant odors. At that weight loss is either absent or insignificant — 1-3 kg (up to 5% of the body weight before pregnancy). Such a condition is easily treatable at home.

In more severe cases vomiting occurs before10-20 once a day and is accompanied by drooling, while significantly deteriorated general condition of women, there are weakness, apathy. With vomit and saliva lost a significant amount of fluid, dehydration occurs, the metabolism. The skin becomes dry, pale, lowered blood pressure, pulse rate, there is constipation, reduces the number of detachable urine, fever. Loss of body weight can be up to8-10 kg or more (up to 10% of initial body weight). With the progression of this form of toxicity develops gradually violation water and salt, protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, Acid-base and vitamin balance, function of the endocrine glands. In such a situation greatly disturbed flow of nutrients to the fetus, and it is precisely in this period is laying down and the formation of all major organs and systems of the baby.

Drooling (Ptializm) may be accompanied by vomiting, pregnant women, rarely occurs as an independent form of early toxicity. In marked salivation per day pregnant can lose 1 liter of liquid. Profuse salivation leads to dehydration, loss of proteins that negatively affects the mental state of a woman.

By 12 weeks of pregnancy, as a rule, the phenomenon of early toxicity pass.

Diagnosis and treatment of toxemia

Even in mild manifestations of toxicity doctor will refer you for tests. You will need to pass a urine test for acetone and ketone bodies, biochemical and general blood tests. In severe disease the patient will be placed in a hospital. At the light, the most common degree of toxicity you will be treated at home under the supervision of a physician antenatal clinic.

To eliminate the discomfort is necessary to pay attention diet. If toxemia is not always broken appetite, it can sometimes be even higher, but even more the kind of food does not cause positive emotions, sometimes have to put considerable effort to force myself to swallow at least a piece. Therefore, we can satisfy your culinary whims, entering into the diet coveted salty cucumbers, sweet rolls or exotic fruit. Food should be taken frequently, 5-6 once a day, but the portions must be small, and the menu — varied.

It should be borne in mind that it is very hot or very cold food quickly provoke vomiting. Products must be easily digested, contain a sufficient amount of vitamins. It is better to drink alkaline mineral water, tea with mint.

If you notice that much increased salivation, You can help mouthwash tanning solutions that reduce the process, such as infusions of sage, chamomile, peppermint. If nausea and vomiting occur in the morning immediately after waking up, try to have breakfast in bed, lay next to the bed a few crackers, slices of lemon or mint gum. Especially nice if in this situation, the future Pope will show himself a gentleman, and will give you an easy and healthy breakfast.

If thenausea starts during the second half of the day, then, most of all, it affects the nervous tension and fatigue. In this case, you can enjoy a soothing collection, motherwort, or valerian.

If these measures do not help, be sure to tell a watching you obstetrician-gynecologist. 


In that case, if the doctor detects a change in the assays cock hard every day deflected to the left and being degraded, most likely have to go to hospital. The task of doctors in the first place will restore lost fluids, proteins, salts. To nutrients and vitamins come directly into the bloodstream, you will put a drip. In order to suppress nausea and vomiting using agents that block the gag reflex. Since, as already m
entioned, the nervous system has a significant impact on the severity of toxicity, for your peace of mind in the hospital will be set up health-protective mode. In addition, you will have a means of having a calming effect, while excessive salivation — drugs that inhibit the action of the salivary glands. May be used and the impact of non-drug methods: acupuncture, hypno-psychotherapy and, herbal, aromatherapy. This will help reduce the amount of medication that may have an adverse effect on the developing embryo.

As a result of treatment, weight gain becomes evident normalized daily urine output (the number of detachable urine), as well as heart rate, blood pressure and temperature, vomiting stops or becomes less likely it will be possible to return to a familiar home environment. In rare cases, a complex treatment for a few days is completely ineffective, and then to interrupt the pregnancy.

According to the magazine "9 months" Number 3, 2003

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