Zeal society surface ships to reach a clear fire highest density and overpriced at range may eventually be translated into reality.
In an era when the best quality air force one hundred percent use pluses «smart» precision-guided weapons «air-land», it seems weird that a ship’s fire support to achieve their kinetic impact so far relies on unmanaged because actually own the least clear of ammunition.
So Makar, while attack aircraft commander of the combined forces provides an opportunity to (politically cute) delivery precision strikes with the lowest indirect injury, segodnyaschy practice naval fire support has a certain bad experience and has inherent limitations regarding the rules of engagement.
Nedavneshnee evidence of that — operation off the coast of Libya in 2011. While Allied forces participating in Operation «Unified Protector» (Unified Protector) used a variety of precision-guided munitions «air-land» against the forces of Muammar Gaddafi priklnnyh, naval units relied on «silly» ballistic ammunition previous eras.
Secured experience destroyer HMS Liverpool Type 42 British Navy commits own last war patrol prior to disposal, permitted him to once again perform their intended target. Liverpool had shot in the general difficulties 211 shells (113 high-explosive (RP) and 98 lighting) from own Mk 8 Mod 0 srednekalibernoy 4.5-inch (114 mm) guns at different targets along the Libyan coast.
Its objectives were as stationary position, for example, under the command priklnnyh roadblocks to Gaddafi forces and offensive weapons, such as missiles and BM21 tf adapted for the carriage of heavy machine guns. Liverpool also directed his gun Mk 8 on inflatable boats, filled with improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Star shells were used as a mental tool in situations where the loyalist elements possessed rocket launchers and other offensive weapons nearby buildings.
Since there is a huge fear about indirect harm during shelling kinetic ammunition, the widely used star shells that deliver massive by parachute flares over the target. He served as a means of psychological pressure, showing Gaddafi troops that their position is known to NATO forces. In general, these operations have also confirmed the fact that the ship’s ability to fire the British fleet not quite grown over the past 30 years.
While the introduction of GPS-based guidance in 2000, significantly improve the accuracy and reduce the costs of ammunition, has been focused on the problem of historical associated with the offset error of initial data, progress themselves guns and ammunition was very moderate. By the time the true gun Mk 8 Mod 0 was upgraded to standard Mod 1 (introduction of new drives, semiconductor switches, real-time monitoring and gun shield with small effective area of reflection); 4.5-inch high-explosive projectile extended range with bottom gasifier, entered service in 2004, its highest increment range to 27 km (increasing range of 6 km in comparison with existing RP ammunition).
In general, none of these developments have given nothing to address the escalating problem engage point targets at a distance. This situation is currently being affected by all the fleets, besides it is complicated by the fact that most of the objectives pursued by the Navy, most likely, are in particular proximity to populated areas, where the delivery of high-precision, low impact has become an indirect injury of mandatory condition.
This problem, of course, make decisions and in this regard have been initiated research and development (many of them partly or one hundred percent coincided with work in the field of ground artillery) to improve the technology that has allowed to realize the reality of high-precision, GPS ammunition induced by excessive range.
At the forefront has been reached no practical results, but says that they are getting closer. Their achievement should mark a radical change in the system of opinions regarding ship fire — its range, accuracy and price of 1 hits.
The need for fire support
Srednekalibernaya cannon system MCGS (medium-calibre gun system) is a flexible and cost effective solution naval fire support frisky response, it offers all-weather, round the clock capability of conducting sustained fire with the highest rate.
Gun shop has a large capacity, inexpensive gun in comparison with missiles to destroy ground targets. These weapons can also contribute to task counter surface targets, and in a broad sense and naval diplomacy.
Three new U.S. Navy destroyer DDG-1000 should be equipped 155-mm AGS settings and appropriate precision guided munitions LRLAP
Yet there are two inherited problem that must be addressed. Today’s artillery armament is limited in range, which reduces the radius of his deeds inland and able to make the ship vulnerable to fire from the coast.
In addition, the accuracy (measured as radial possible deviation (CWE)) associated with classic ballistic ammunition decreases proportionally range, limiting the ability of combatant commanders on the use of the ship’s fire in urban or congested areas, where the problem becomes severe indirect losses.
As for the impact on the earth, that numerous studies have shown impressively that cannon least 5 inches (127 mm) can not have a range or lethality necessary for tasks bombing coast. Indeed, many of the calculations confirmed the advantage of the ship’s 155-mm guns, although in the end only South American Navy went the way of the development of such type of weapons and the respective ammunition.
In contrast, the initial research and development activities competing light 155mm concepts in France, Germany and England over the past two decades, ultimately, did not lead to anything.
In the South American Navy started the revival 155-mm guns, the culmination of this process in fiscal year 2014 will be the delivery of the warship Zumwalt, the first of 3 missile destroyer DDG 1000 series of armed new 155-mm gun-promising set of AGS (Advanced Gun System) and adequate precision ammunition LRLAP (Long Range Land Attack Projectile — ranged ammo to destroy ground targets).
Tests of this armament will begin in 2013. Complex AGS, developed by BAE Systems Land and Armaments — Weapon Systems, initially thought as a ship’s armament missile destroyer DD-21, and later received the designation DD [X], and now DDG-1000.
Multitasking surface ship DDG-1000 displacement of 14,500 tonnes created to attack ground targets, and the predominance of the coast; his combat abilities determined the need to restore (in a clearer and more modern form) abilities ship fire that South American Navy lost when the first 90s were scrapped four warships Iowa class with their 16-inch guns.
In connection with this fleet for a long time lost the ability to meet the requirements of the Marine Corps regarding fire support. Consider first the 90s a number of different technologies fire highest density, including vertical gun for promising concept Ships in the U.S. Navy in 1999 decided that each DD-21 (in the current time DDG-1000) should be resettled with 2 complexes AGS (spinning 155-mm single tower) to provide a clear and dramatic fire against a wide range of ground targets, and additional capabilities to combat surface vessels.
The key to this ability is the new high-precision missile LRLAP, which will support an expeditionary force on the coast and in the interior areas at distances of more than 63 nautical miles (~ 117 km). AGS weighs a total of 100 tons of difficulties and consists of 155 — mm gun cooling water, stabilized gun with electric installation, vertical loading mechanism, and absolutely automatic ammunition handling mechanism under deck.
Last eliminates manual operations with ammunition for the South American fleet that is of prime importance. It is argued that (at about the length of 45 feet [13 meters], the width of 30 feet, two stories high and weight 160 tons), he is the greatest, absolutely automatic store in the world. In fact, the store is an underdeck storage and logistics center that can accommodate and handle up to 38 removable trays, each with eight shells LRLAP and eight propelling charges.
Overarching management system AGS connects voedinyzhdy controls weapon and fire in AGS architecture in order to integrate into the general computing space ship DDG-1000. Other innovations include the development of project management AGS wear and modern thermal imaging solutions to ensure longer service life and minimize trunk infrared signature.
In June 2007, BAE Systems has received a contract price of 276 million dollars at the ready early 4155 mm complexes AGS (two complex on the DDG-1000 and DDG-1001). The company worked with the subcontractor General Dynamics Armaments and Technical Products and after the industrial acceptance tests in March 2010 in April with BAE Systems plant in Alabama was shipped first serial shop.
Shop arrived at the shipyard General Dynamics Bath Iron Works in May 2010 to be installed on the destroyer DDG-1000. Subsequent contract for mass production AGS original price 73 million (possible price up to 168 million dollars in options) was issued the company BAE Systems in October 2011, it provides for: preparation of complexes AGS for DDG-1002.
Precision guided munitions LRLAP extended range developed with companies BAE Systems (as the primary developer and integrator), and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. LRLAP — this 155-mm rocket projectile accelerator makes use of the GPS / inertial measurement and control tail wheel to deliver a unitary warheads with high accuracy (projectile has a remote detonator with 2 modes: height undermine or point detonation).
Any of the 2-gun installations AGS missile destroyer DDG-1000 is capable of firing ammunition LRLAP with a rate of more than 10 rounds / min. In January 2010, BAE Systems has received a contract for 185.3 million dollars from the South American fleet at the end of the qualification tests LRLAP (compliance with technical specifications). In August 2012 the fleet has announced that the last test cycle to control the flight was conducted at the site White Sands.
Four rockets landed «precisely to the designated rendezvous point, which corresponds to the objectives of the test. Successfully carried out launches from the trunk, tested ignition and operation of rocket motor, getting a GPS signal and guidance on the final section of the line of traffic. «
AGS complex leads Dagva fire at the landfill in September 2009 in order to test new coating barrel, which would be able to extend the life of
According to the statement of the Division for the development and implementation of programs for integrated combat management system for the development of marine shipboard systems on these tests was first demonstrated mode detonation point LRLAP — one of the last remaining features that checked in flight tests.
On tests also demonstrated the technical solution problems with jet propulsion, in recent years have focused on their tremendous efforts. Prior to the start of production in the next 14 months will be a series of additional tests to control the flight of the munition LRLAP to demonstrate its features and reliability in different criteria.
In the current time schedule applets includes preparation for initial production and integration with the ship during 2014 and tests on its board in 2015. Initial combat readiness is planned for 2016. Total price applets AGS for DDG-1000 currently being evaluated in a bit more than 1 billion dollars. At one time planned fleet of 32 ships DDG-1000.
In general, based on the decision to cut the program from DDG-1000 to 3 ships and begin creating anew DDG-51, the company BAE Systems offers the currently complex AGS-Lite (AGS-L) with a reduced footprint and reduced weight, which is meant to include in future project DDG-51 Flight III.
According to the company, in the AGS-L will be used the same 155-mm gun and ammo LRLAP, as a complex, full-AGS; In general, the smallest shop, the least amount of shots ready LRLAP, lightweight supply system and release of ammunition (hence the lowest rate of 6 rounds / min) and the lowest ‘stealth’ tower design contributed to the decrease in mass of 100 tons to 51 tons (a bit less than that of 2-units Mk 45 Mod 4).
England plans to buy new sets MIFS to equip warships Type 26 Global Combat Ship English fleet
England plans to acquire systems MIFS applets for Type 26
England plans to modernize its naval fire support capability through the acquisition of modern maritime indirect fire MIFS (Maritime Indirect Fire System) for mounting on a warship of the English navy Type 26.
First, in July 2012 was released NEWSLETTER ready for procurement solutions MIFS. There were carefully laid dignity srednekalibernoy 5-dyuym/62-kalibra gun system Mk 45 Mod 4 MCGS from BAE Systems in comparison with competing srednekalibernoy system 127/64 LW from Oto Melara proposed by Babcock International Group as the main contractor.
MIFS system designed to promote various operational task, including control of the sea, the conduct of hostilities on the surface, police operations and providing landing amphibious warfare. In this complex, designed for installation on the Type 26 will be merged MCGS, respectively ammunition handling system and MSA.
1st delivery and installation on the first ship of Type 26 is scheduled for 2018; Included in the contract service support during performances on armaments and the original manual.
Requirement MIFS was determined during the development of the concept of FMF (Future Maritime Fires) completed the team of so-called Niteworks (partnership of industry and the Ministry of Defence) in the midst of 2011. FMF is described as an opportunity «to destroy ground hazards and ensure freedom of maneuver of naval forces for joint operations in the coastal zone.»
The concept is a totality analysis abilities and research costs undertaken to define the requirements and future procurement MIFS. These works included the calculation of the profitability of different decisions on guns, ammunition capacity were armed and under development, a set of threats and installations on board Type 26 and upgrade options for other royal navy ships (frigates and destroyers Type 23 Type 45).
Niteworks voedinyzhdy connects the main representatives of the Ministry of Defence, Defence Science and Laboratory Technology and industry representatives to develop bases and tools to support decisions on the ability FMF.
This team has tested different guns, ammunition, platforms and versions of software, developed a model to evaluate the main characteristics of the project and has developed tools to ensure fair and impartial decisions to support the development and procurement.
LRLAP — 155 mm projectile with a jet engine. For delivery unitary warhead to the target block is used GPS / IMU and wheel control rudders
In a fiercely competitive U.S. Navy fleets, counting in the foreseeable future purchase MCGS optimized for the tasks of fire support ship fire, face a difficult choice between gun Mk 45 Mod 4 5-dyuym/62-kalibra produced by the American BAE Systems Land and Armaments gun and 127/64 LW developed by the Italian company Oto Melara.
Any is the latest «generation rich pedigree» and both expect a corresponding development and qualification of precision-guided projectile extended range, which will allow to deliver «smart» precision fire ship, which has long been dreaming of the naval forces of the modern era. Artillery mount Mk 45 is used by the South American fleet in different versions since 1971.
Mod 4 version dates back to the mid-90s, when the Navy found the short-term solution to eliminate inequalities undisputed abilities in fire support from surface ships. The answer is to modernize the existing tools Mk 45 Mod 2 5-dyuym/54-kalibra to increase its long range with conventional and cluster munitions and the ability to fire the new extended-range guided munitions EX 171 ERGM (Extended Range Guided Munition) capable of delivering a projectile rocket accelerator at 63 nautical miles.
Mk 45 Mod 4 fleet entered service in 2001, the first cannon was installed on board the ship South American Winston Churchill. Mk 45 Mod Option 4 was also elected fleets in Australia, Denmark, the land of the rising sun, and South Korea. Together with the creation of new installations South American Navy also run applets on the modernization and improvement of existing systems for Mk 45 Mod 1/2; In July 2012, the company BAE Systems has received a contract price of 25.7 million dollars to complete renovation and modernization of 2-Mk 45 Mod guns 2 to Mod 4 configuration for installation on the new destroyer DDG-51 project.
While maintaining the level of commonality with the Mk 45 Mod 2 about 90 percent in the gun Mod version 4 introduces a number of major improvements to meet the requirements (NSFS) U.S. Navy. These include:
new barrel 62 caliber
hardened bolt and bearing journals
stroke increased recoil
latest operator console EP2
digital interface MSA
new shield cannon to increase the ease of maintenance and reduce the effective area of reflection
Processing capacity ammunition and parts management allow you to selectively store, track down, load and shoot different types of ammunition (up to 9 different types of shells / fuses / charges can be received in the drum-loading mechanism).
Mk 45 Mod 4 or MSAs controlled gun Mk 86 or Mk gun accounting system 160, already facing the U.S. Navy. Increased energy source in Mk 45 Mod 4 with 10 megajoules to 18 megajoules provides the highest initial rate of 2800 ft / s (854 m / s) projectile weighing 110 pounds. In general, while the installation of Mod 4 to the true worth of time in service for more than 10 years, the development of precision-guided projectile respective overpriced range backward.
Company Texas Instruments (later newfound Raytheon) received a contract in September 1996 to develop a rocket projectile ERGM accelerator having guidance unit GPS / INS, four-axle control rudders and unitary warhead.
In general, the program ERGM faced with numerous technical, pricing and management neuvvyazkami and, ultimately, was abolished in 2008 after it had spent more than 600 million dollars. Due to the closure ERGM fleet while still retains its demand for precision projectile over-range compatible with the Mk 45 Mod 4. Companies BAE Systems and Lockheed Martin offered to meet these needs with its 5-inch option LRLAP, already in development for the 155-mm AGS complex missile destroyer DDG-1000.
Mk 45 Mod 4 will be able to fire 10 rounds per minute to LRLAP highest range (rocket accelerator plus planning) 52 nautical miles. In September 2010, BAE Systems announced that it had conducted a successful ballistic flight tests of its own 5-inch LRLAP landfill in Utah. Demo controlled flights LRLAP scheduled for 2012.
Company Oto Melara to own a gun is aimed at Vulcano 76 scalable clear impact in the coastal zone
Recognizing that 127-mm/5-dyuym gun MCGS fully justified based on the beliefs of those fleets that seek out the ability to deliver fire support saturated / highest mortality from the sea, the company Oto Melara also led to show fleet requirements, extensively using it are popular guns 76 / 62 Compact, Super Rapid and Strales, for «smart» munition extended range.
While these fleets may experience shortage of platforms, budgets or doctrines to accommodate larger MCGS, preferring the universal flexibility and cost-effectiveness model range 76/62, the company Oto Melara believe that the current emphasis on coastal operations with the possible requirement maintain forces on the coast, acting in the city, determines the need for precision-guided munitions. At the same time, the threat of missiles launched from land or asymmetric attacks in coastal waters has led to a corresponding requirement for a larger area beyond the reach of enemy weapons.
In response, the company began to develop a new program from the family of ammunition Vulcano 76, in which the development of integrated programs from Vulcano technology artillery shell with a controlled trajectory DART (Driven Ammunition Reduced Time-of-flight) before designed for anti-aircraft applications. DART — it sabots having great original speed to increase or decrease at range of flight time, it installed a programmable fuse / GOS created to optimize the lethality and constant adjustments to the line of motion control radio beam.
According to the company Oto Melara, initial studies conducted in collaboration with the Italian Navy to test the ability of integration recomposed block GPS / IMU technology and infrared guidance in a new family of 76-mm ammunition, confirmed the validity of the technical solutions Vulcano 76, which is used in stabilizing fins Subcaliber projectile. Its main features include:
1) specially designed warhead (having equivalent or superior lethality conventional 76mm ammunition)
2) the range is substantially higher than that of shells available
3) the highest accuracy, determined the composition of the infrared guidance and guidance using GPS / IMU (and semi-active laser perspective) on final line of motion
Provides three types of ammunition Vulcano 76: extended range ballistic missile BER (Ballistic Extended Range); autonomous guided projectile extended range GLR (Guided Long Range) with GPS-guided; GLR and autonomous projectile with GPS-guided and IR-guided on final line of motion (projectile designation GLR / IR).
While ammo BER may have a range of 30 km with an accuracy comparable to standard unguided projectiles option GLR (optimized for vehicular fire) fails to achieve a maximum range of 40 km and offer CWE least several 10’s of meters. Option GLR / IR with its own infrared seeker on the final stretch to provide high-precision attack surface targets, with all this, it will be CWE least 20 meters.
As for the gun complex, referred to as a set of V-kit is specifically designed to get the opportunity to work with Vulcano 76. It consists of a programming device Vulcano (projectile enters into the original data GPS, the coordinates of objects, features the line of movement, modes / install fuse ) and multithreaded system of choice of ammunition, which allows automatic fetch and process up to 4 different types of ammunition.
Using the developments in Vulcano and DART, the company Oto Melara has already begun work on the final major subsystems. For example, a set of GPS / IMU has already been tested in the fire testing, body shell and rudder actuators are tested, and fuse, and an infrared seeker still at the prototype stage.
Timetable approved by Oto Melara for applets Vulcano 76, anticipates flight tests, they will be held until the end of 2012. Development configuration projectile BER was completed by the end of 2012, ammunition GLR the end of 2013. Qualifications and the primordial scheduled to begin first in 2015.
Longish pedigree Gun 127/64 LW MCGS is a new product in a longish line of 127-mm guns production Oto Melara, it acts as a real contender euro gun Mk 45 Mod 4. Pedigree 127/64 LW gun rises to 127/54 Compact, which is sold 9 fleets. 127/54 LW developed by their own means and mounted on Italian frigate Bersagliere in 2003.
She practically served as perineal care for today’s complex 127/64 LW. Oto Melara company says that 127/64 LW represents the latest MCGS in its class and is characterized in that is already being done for the 2-European programs for surface warships (multipurpose frigates class Carlo Bergamini and the Italian Navy frigate F 125 of the German Navy ) with strict orders to the family today. Artillery mount 127/64 LW was chosen for zabugornoy applets on frigates (presumably two new MEKO A200 frigates ordered by Algeria in the company of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems).
Also, along with the company Babcock filed an application for English warship Type 26 Global Combat Ship within the requirements of the Marine indirect fire system (Maritime Indirect Fire System). When designing the model 127/64 LW approach of Oto Melara is a combination of proven products with new selected developments, including: barrel 64-gauge; absolutely automated system loading ammunition; the ability to move under the deck; modular and reconfigurable power supply system based on the servo amplifiers interchangeable; modern and open electrical architecture.
Also in this model integrated control unit guidance, the programming device munitions, radar reference speed and local GPS to support precision-guided munitions Vulcano extended range. Turret 127/64 LW weighs least 29 tons, it can lead to a fire with a rate of 35 rounds / min. Her ammunition handling system, consisting of four spinning drum shops in which installed 56 shots ready in 4 different types allows to adjust the range of ammunition and maintain long the highest rate of fire.
Another functionality embedded in a complex of 127/64 LW, is the ship’s fire control system NFCS (Naval Fire Control System), programmable command device that facilitates planning tasks and their implementation by the battle management system. Usually, NFCS provides naval battle management system the best solutions to fire in accordance with this scenario, with all this calculated best ammo and proper line of travel, the number of shots needed to merit the required efficiency and better position and course of the ship.
Integration and factory acceptance first complete system 127/64 LW held in the first half of 2011, including live fire (over 150 shots) on artillery range Cottrau. Installation on board the frigate ITS Carlo Bergamini was accomplished in July 2011. Another fundamental feature of the unit pretty 127/64 LW is that it was designed from the outset to fire long-range precision 127 mm sabot ammunition Vulcano last generation. Developed by Oto Melara in financing the Italian Navy, the program on 127-mm Vulcano conducted on two parallel fronts:
projectile BER (extended range ballistic) with universal fuse to optimize the impact on final line of motion with range to 60 km
guided missile (GLR) extended-range spin-stabilized, incorporating a GPS / IMU, nasal control surfaces and a warhead with ready-striking tungsten steel elements, its actual range is 100 km
As for the projectile GLR, then Oto Melara company in 2010 it started full-scale development with the following steps preparatory and basic feasibility study, with all this goal is the initial delivery of the munition into service in 2014 — 2015.
Test the feasibility of the concept in April 2009 showed that the projectile reached the distance of 50 km, get GPS data in flight; the following tests to verify the controlled flight in April 2010, the projectile flew 60 km (long distance limited landfill in the town of Salto di Quirra).
Oto Melara company went on to own a good American rivals on the way to their own technical solutions GLR, describing competing with all this concept, for example ERGM and LRLAP, as rocket with jet propulsion launched from the barrel, which is even harder constructively and how to have a higher price.
The decision is not used Vulcano auxiliary rocket thrust — only payment for energy imparted in the trunk. This reduces workload and improves survivability of electronics in the projectile GLR. For projectile GLR company also inspects more GOS, infrared and semi-active laser; infrared homing head improves projectile at surface targets at increased distances; semi-active laser version will allow to produce acquisition of targets on the coast of third parties.
In June 2012 it was announced that the company Oto Melara and German Diehl Defence signed a cooperation agreement which initially focused on a Vulcano munition 155mm GPS / SAL (for terrestrial self-propelled guns) and ammunition Vulcano 127mm GPS / SAL (for complex 127 / 64 LW and its predecessors). This agreement strengthens the position of Vulcano munition on frigates F Series 125 German Navy (separate line available Italo-German agreement on the 155-mm projectile Vulcano SAL).
Although the role of Spain in the program Vulcano has been minimized, the Dutch fleet financed their role and the role of Thales Nederland in the program according to an embodiment of Vulcano 127 mm BER. Dutch fleet also retains observer status in option GLR; implied that he plans to modify one setting 127/54 Compact for fire testing in 2013.
Meanwhile, the company Oto Melara the currently integrates with the tool set Vulcano 127/54 LW aboard the frigate Bersagliere to prepare for future challenges. This upgrade, in which installed the latest automatic ammunition handling system will be completed first in 2013, then tests will be conducted.
From the physical point of view the company Oto Melara believe that when firing a projectile of Vulcano GLR Mk 45 installation problems will not arise. In general, the installation of the respective sets of programmable, of course, will claim the assistance of BAE Systems as a project coordinator. Based on the intense rivalry 2-companies at this stage it is not clear how this issue will be resolved.