Likhachev Peter Gavrilovic — Russian general, who was captured in 1812

The only … Russian general was captured in a glorious and bloody day Borodin. And the prisoner did not give up, but was taken in spite of their own accord — because of absurd coincidence. Beat the French bayonet hit the badges Peter Gavrilovic Likhachev, a professional leader and backed by years of perfect service to Fatherland.

Peter Gavrilovic was born in 1758 in a family of nobles Pskov province. At age 15, began active service in the artillery furerom. First combat experience Peter Likhachev received Zakubanskom hike Suvorov in 1783. A year later was the first officer rank — lieutenant. Two years later Likhachev transferred to the Artillery and Engineering Gentry Corps company commander officer. In 1787, on their own, Peter Gavrilovic transferred to the 1st Regiment kanonirsky. This translation is associated with the impending Russian-Swedish war. Likhachev was involved in the actions and in the rowing fleet and land operations. Twice he was promoted several times and recorded in the orders. So, for the differences in the 2nd battle Rochensalmskom Peter Gavrilovic received the rank of captain, and a war against the Swedes commits major. In 1791, the Likhachev resigned for health reasons. A year later, Peter Gavrilovic vorachivaetsya the service. It is determined by a lieutenant colonel in the Grenadier Regiment Petersburg.

Likhachev Peter Gavrilovic - Russian general, who was captured in 1812
Portrait of Major General PG Likhachev workshop [1] George Dawe. Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, the Municipal Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg). Likhachev portrait executed with the original, write, or rather all the provincial artist. Since he looks at us open calm face. General survived by his widow for 30 years, and perhaps it referred to a workshop Dow image from which was made this portrait.

In 1797, Likhachev charge to form a regiment of Chasseurs. For over 10 years, commanding a regiment of these, Peter Gavrilovic serve in the Caucasus. Then show exceptional initiative in the training and equipping troops. To the delight of a fighter, he completely reversed parade-parade drill, replacing it with war games, bayonet fighting techniques, gymnastics, sharpen strategy in the highlands and small exercises. Awkward shape Likhachev changed to Circassian hats, jackets and free greenish highest boots, introduced a linen bags instead of briefcases and bandoliers around his waist. Brand new equipment was considerably easier, range of motion and allowed to move inconspicuously on the ground. Along with exercise it allowed rangers Likhachev small transitions to keep up with mounted Cossacks. Not content with just training and the latest gear, Likhachev one hundred percent declined from a passive defensive strategy while protecting the borders. Excellent furnished promptly reported to the intelligence on the movement of clusters or mountaineers. A squad of "green rangers" Likhachev reinforced Cossacks immediately spoke of Konstantingorskogo building, where he was stationed, and constantly broke up the enemy. Not one Likhachev expedition ended badly for his enemies. After a while, the Highlanders began the tenth road to bypass the formidable frontier. Peter Gavrilovic innovations were so optimal, that later, General Ermoloff completely takes the experience of the Caucasus housing.

Peter Likhachev was able to make war not only with the bayonet, and the word. In 1806, in the war against the Cuban and Derbent khanates he managed to persuade their favorites negotiations to end the war. Thus, in the first campaign, Likhachev with 6 hundred square meters of the Cossacks, was able to get to the first Derbent. The corps commander Glazanzepa assured Likhachev abandon the trip, recalling the fate of the assassinated prince Tsitsianov (killed in Baku taking the keys to the town), to which the chief rangers said a sentence that can fully serve the entire life Likhachev slogan: "Honor — my god. I die relaxed, if it should be, that I was lost for the utility of the Fatherland. " Local communities will meet with the emergence of Russian joy. Later, during the suppression of the Cuban Khanate, Peter Gavrilovic led a small convoy went to the camp of Sheikh Ali Khan and assured the Cuban ruler to dissolve the army.

One of the most striking episodes of life in the Caucasus became a role in the storming of the gorge Likhachev Khan-Kala. For this case, he was awarded the Order of St.. ZHoru third degree. A little earlier, Peter Gavrilovic has already become a knight of the Order of St.. Vladimir 3rd degree, St.. Anne 1st degree, and St.. ZHoru 4th degree. In 1808, Major General Likhachev obliged to retire in the second time. Several wounds in the Caucasus and rheumatism, colds in the campaigns of the knees, very undermined the health of elderly already have a general.

But after year, on the eve of the war with Austria, Likhachev vorachivaetsya again into the army. He was appointed chief of the Tomsk Infantry Regiment, with whom he made a trip to Galicia. Active clashes with the Austrians did not work and the troops returned to Russia. The two empires in what was a quarrel in danger hated Napoleon. Specifically those hidden agreements between Austria and Russia explained the passive act Corps Russian Schwarzenberg with the beginning of the war in 1812.

Since 1811, Peter Gavrilovic headed by the 24th Infantry Division as part of the 6th Infantry Corps General DS Dokhturov. Since the beginning of the war with the whole body retreated 1st Western Army Barclay de Tolly. The first battle in which adopted the role of the 24 th Infantry Division was the defense of Smolensk. Having replaced the bleeding body Raevskogo, 6th Infantry firmly held up the city. Likhachev Division held the position on the right wing — from the Dnieper to the Royal bastion. On this site were very brutal battles. Division Likhachev fought against seasoned fighters Ney — 1st of the best of Napoleon's marshals. From 4 am to 9 pm rangers and line infantry repulsed the attacks of overwhelming odds. The French did not manage to break through the defenses at this site.

In the end, the city was left to the French, but his persistent defense given the opportunity to withdraw Russian armies deep into the country, to the field of Borodino.
Near the village of Borodino took the most amazing fight era. 6th Infantry Corps, according to the dispositions, defended the position near the village of Knyazkova, the left wing of an emphasis on the mound height (later, the battery Raevskogo) and right — adjacent to the village of Gorki. Likhachev first division was in reserve, but the 19 and 40th Jäger regiments had to fight in the morning. They participated in a counterattack on the village of Borodino, in order to return a reference point. Rangers managed to overturn the French and kill the river crossing Kolocha, eliminating the possibility of light coming from the right.

Likhachev Peter Gavrilovic - Russian general, who was captured in 1812
The refusal of the Russian general prisoner PG Likhachev take the sword out of the hands of Napoleon. Chromolithography A.Safonova. The beginning of XX century

Closer to 11 hours day or the brunt of French was moved to the battery Raevskogo and at some point the soldiers of General Bonami managed to take the redoubt, but the prince's counterattack Ermolova returned strengthening of the Russian army. As you know, participated in this attack was standing nearby battalion of the Ufa Regiment, which came in the 24th Division.

Later, the body Dokhturov will give the order to change the exhausted fighter Raevskogo. Likhachev with its own division took Kurgan heights. Important to note that Peter Gavrilovic and to the Borodino battle and during suffered from unbearable pain in the joints, but realizing their responsibility for the division, malaise hiding in every possible way.

On the battery pain became so strong that General Likhachev could not stand, but that, that leave the fight and did not think. He ran the defense sitting on a camp chair in the corner of the redoubt, maintaining equanimity even when 120 guns opened fire on strengthening hurricane. By the middle of the day or, Battery Raevskogo was a dreadful sight, the enormous space around it was littered with corpses and body parts, parapet destroyed by artillery and trampled tyschami boots ditch filled with dead bodies of French and Russian. But the battery was kept, despite no small loss, unchanging fire and incessant attacks. This lasted up to 16 hours. After repeated attacks, the combined forces of cavalry and infantry, the French managed to take the redoubt. Likhachev latest effort drew his sword and rushed into the midst of the enemy, seeking death, but received several wounds bayonets and rifle butts, fell unconscious. A general's epaulettes helped Peter Gavrilovic. His bandaged up and presented to Napoleon, who appreciated the courage of the defenders and gave the order to return the sword Likhachev. Russian Gen. refused to take the gun, saying, "Captivity robbed me of my sword, and I can take her back only on my Sudar."

Likhachev was exiled to France, according to some sources, died in the fall of Königsberg in 1812, according to others, when he was liberated by Russian troops in March 1813. He was buried in the ancestral village Tyagushi.

Peter Gavrilovic Likhachev, with all modesty, was the prototype of his own indomitable will, military and diplomatic skills.

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