Little-known Russian war of the country: the struggle with Kazan and the Crimea in 1530-1540 gg.

Little-known Russian state of war: the struggle with Kazan and the Crimea in 1530-1540 gg.

The premise of the new aggravation of Russian-Kazan relationship became "wickedness and disgrace," perpetrated by Safa Giray Khan (reigned 1524-1531, 1536-1549 gg.) Russian Ambassador Andrey Pilemovu spring 1530 Chronicler did not specify what was the insult. This incident was the last straw in Moscow, and the Russian government decided to make another attempt to return Kazan under his control. Covering the southern border of the likely impact of the Crimean troops, Vasily III in May 1530 moved against the ratification of the Kazan Khanate two — ship and horse. River flotilla commanded by governor Ivan Belsky and Misha Humpback. Cavalry army led Mike Glinski and Basil Sheremet.

Kazan was prepared for war. Khanate came to the aid of troops under the command of the Nogai mom nobleman and Astrakhan troops led by Prince Yaglych (Aglysh). Under Kazan in the Bulak river was built fort, which was due to capital make it difficult to conduct the troops.

Ship's Men made way to Kazan without much difficulty. Cavalry regiments, trying to prevent them from breaking the Tatars in several skirmishes, safely crossed the Volga and 10 July together with the ship's Ratiu. On the night of July 14, the regiment Ivan Obolensky Sheepskin stormed the enemy's fort, a large part of the garrison was broken. The success of Russian troops and began bombing the city of Kazan alarmed residents. Many began to pursue the talks with Moscow, and stopping. Under these circumstances, Safa Giray Khan chose to flee the town.

But Russia's governors took the time to start out assault, although the town is practically no defenders, and a significant part of urban residents was ready to negotiate. The generals entered the parochial dispute figuring among themselves, who first must start to Kazan. Suddenly a storm broke and messed up all the plans of the Russian command. Tatars have used this moment for a sudden onslaught. It has been successful: the Russian troops suffered significant losses, lost 5 and Russian commanders, including Theodore shovel Obolensky, Tatars captured part of the Russian artillery — 70 guns, arquebuses. Recovered from the enemy attacks the Russian resumed shelling of the town, but without much of success. Tatars after successful forays have been inspired and changed your mind to give up. July 30, 1530 the siege was lifted. Russian Army went beyond the Volga. August 15 Russia came to its borders. Guilty of this disaster recognized Ivan Belsky. He was sentenced to death, but then the governor pardoned and put him in jail, where he stayed until the death of Basil.

However, before fleeing back to Astrakhan Safa Giray, Kazan know started negotiations with Moscow on oath sir Vasily Ivanovich. In autumn 1530 in Moscow, Kazan came embassy. Kazan, on behalf of the Khan asked that stately capital prince granted Safa Giray "king of offspring for his brother and himself perpetrated, and the governor wants to be alone in gosudarskoy will, and the rulers of the whole earth and the people of Kazan … sluzhiti forward relentlessly willing to chat and be alone all the earth until the Kazan own bellies and their children." Mongolian ambassadors gave Sir Basil shertnuyu record (chert — oath, contractual matter), promising that it will be approved Safa Giray and all the princes, and the Kazan Murzas.

In Kazan was oriented Russian Ivan salting of the field. He had to lead the Khanate of the oath and claim the return of the prisoners and guns. But Safa Giray refused to approve the oath of office. Negotiations resumed. Safa Giray prolonged the time and put forward new demands. Immediately he doggedly sought help from the Crimean Khan Saadat Giray. To provide direct assistance to the weakened Nogays invasion and internal strife Crimean Khanate failed. However, the Crimean Tatars have made a foray into the land Odoevskys and Tula. In the course of negotiations lasted metropolitan government has managed to attract the ambassadors of the princes of the Kazan Tabaya and Tevekelya. With the help of the Russian authorities made contact with the most powerful princes in Kazan Kichi-Ali and Bulat. They believed that to continue ruinous war with Moscow can not. In addition, there were offended by the fact that Safa Giray surrounded himself Nogai and Crimean advisors, pushing aside the Kazan know. The cup overflowed the pro-Russian Party of thought Khan arrested and put to death all the Russian embassy. This decision led to the recent destructive war with the Russian state. There was a coup d'etat against Safa Giray made almost all of Kazan know. Khan fled, Crimean Tatars and foot were sent, some were executed. In Kazan, was created a provisional government.

Capital sir initially planned to return to the throne of the famous Kazan Moscow faithfulness of Shah Ali. He was sent to Nizhny Novgorod, close to Kazan. But Kazan government, led by Princess Kovgar-Shad (sister of the deceased Khan Mohammed Amin and the only surviving representative of the kind of Ulu Muhammad, the founder of the Khanate of Kazan), and the princes of Kichi-Ali and Bulat, refused to take unpopular among the Mongolian ruler. Kazan asked for himself Khan's younger brother Shah-Ali-Ali Jan (Yanaleya). He was at that time 15 years old, and all of his short reign (1532-1535 gg.) It was under the control of Moscow, the princess Kovgar-Prince Bulat and Shad. As authorized capital of majestic Prince Vasili he married Princess Syuyumbike Nogai, who played later perceptible role in the history of the Kazan country. So Makar, between Moscow and Kazan was lined lasting peace and alliance rather small, lasted until the death of Vasily Ivanovich.

On the Crimean border

On the border with the Crimean Khanate during the Russian-Kazan War 1530-1531 gg., Relative calm that sometimes violated attack small Mongolian troops. Protection southern Borderland continued to focus on. The smallest threat provoked spirited response. The situation changed in 1533. Feud 2-brothers, Saadat Giray and Islam Giray, suddenly ended with a victory Sahib Giray (Sahib I Giray, the rules in 1532 — 1551.), Supported by the Port. Saadat Giray was obliged to renounce the throne and go to Istanbul. And Islam Giray took over the throne in just 5 months.

In August in Moscow received the news of the beginning of the campaign to Russia 40-th. Crimean horde pursued by "princes" Islam Giray and Safa Giray. Metropolitan government had no clear evidence on the direction of the enemy's troops, and was forced to take emergency measures to protect the border areas. The stately Prince Vasily Ivanovich stood with extra troops in the village of Kolomenskoye. In Kolomna focused army under the command of Prince Dmitry Belsky and Basil Shuya. A little later there were the same shelf princes Mstsislauye Theodore, Peter, and Peter Repnina Ohlyabina. From Kolomna battue against Mongolian troops were focused light shelves sheepskin Telepneva Ivan, Dmitry Swirls paletzkiana and Dmitry Drutsk.

Crimean princes received information on the nomination of the regiments of the capital to the border, changed the direction of impact and attacked the Ryazan land. Crimean troops burned the suburbs, tried to attack the fortress, but failed to take the city. Ryazan land suffered terrible devastation. The first in the area of operations of the Mongolian troops came easy regiment Dmitry Swirls paletzkiana. Near the village of Bezzubova, 1
0 miles from the Kolomna, his regiment defeated the Mongolian squad. Then contact with the enemy entered other light shelves. Faced with resistance, the Mongolian troops retreated to corral the main forces. Crimean army was a blow to Russian regiments, which was headed by Ivan Sheepskin Telepnev. Russian light shelves stood in heavy combat, but were obliged to withdraw. The generals of the Mongol troops, afraid to approach the main Russian forces did not pursue the "lehko governor" and began to retreat, leading a large full.

The gap with Kazan. The war with Safa Giray

Bane of the emperor Basil (3 December 1533) markedly complicated the position of the Russian foreign policy of the country. In the war with Moscow came majestically Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian-Russian War 1534-1537 gg.), Anti-Russian sentiment prevailed in Kazan. In winter 1533-1534 gg. Kazan troops ravaged Nizhny Novgorod and Novgorod land, full of large increases. Then came the attacks on Vyatka land. The Moscow authorities have tried to reason with Kazan, but remaining true to Russian state-Jan Ali Khan has not used the support of the local nobility. Kazan felt the change in the situation and the weakening of Moscow. The final break between the Russian government and the Kazan Khanate occurred September 25, 1534 As a result of a palace coup, which was organized by the Princess Kovgar-Shad Khan was killed Gian-Ali and his Russian advisers. Many figures pro-Russian parties were obliged to flee to the Metropolitan Government. At Kazan throne returned Safa Giray — davneshny and a staunch enemy of Russia.

Accession of Safa Giray has led to the beginning of the modern large-scale war on the Volga. The first serious clashes have occurred in winter 1535-1536 gg. In December, the Mongolian troops because of careless service Meshcherskys governor Gundorova Seeds and Basil Zamytskogo came to Nizhny Novgorod, Berezopolya and Gorokhovets. In January, the Tatars burned Balakhna and retreated when transferred from Murom troops under the command of Governor Theodore Mstsislauye and Misha Kurbskii. But overtake the main body of the Kazan Tatars failed. Another blow struck by the Tatars Koryakova River Unzhe. This raid ended in failure. Most of the Mongolian army was destroyed, the prisoners were executed in Moscow. In late July, the Tatars invaded Kostroma lands, destroying the river Kusi outpost Prince Peter Motley Zasyekin. In autumn 1536, and Mari Mongolian troops invaded the Galician lands.

First, in 1537 the army of the Kazan Khan began a new offensive. In the middle of January Tartars suddenly came from Moore and tried to take it in stride. Kazan's troops burned the suburbs, but failed to capture it. After a day or three, after an unsuccessful siege, they hastily retreated, having received a message about the performance of Vladimir and Meshchora Russian regiments under the command of Roman Odoevskogo Basil Sheremeteva and Misha Kubensky. Muromsk land of Kazan army moved to Nizhny Novgorod. The Tatars burned the top trading quarter, but were beaten back and went down the Volga to its borders. In addition, the sources noted the emergence of the Mongolian and Mari units in the districts Balakhna Gorodtsa, Galician and Kostroma lands.

Metropolitan government, anxious to increased activity of the Kazan Tatars and feeble cover of the eastern borders, begins to strengthen border along the Volga. In 1535 the fortress are the latest in Perm. In the 1536-1537 years. build a fortress on the River Roper (Bui-city), in Balachna, Meshchora, at the mouth of the river Uchi (Yesterday). Upgrade the capacity to Ustjug and Vologda. Transfer to a new place Temnikov after fires reduced defenses in Vladimir and Yaroslavl. In 1539, on the border of Galicia Zhilansky city county building (in the same year, he was captured and burned). Bit recording in 1537 for the first time include painting the governors of Kazan "Ukraine". The main army under the Shah-Ali and George Shein was in Vladimir. In Murom troops commanded by Fedor Mstislavsky in Nizhny Novgorod — Dmitry Vorontsov, Kostroma — Andrew Holm, in Galicia — Ivan Prozorovskii. Approximately the same arrangement of troops on this line continued in the following years.

In the spring of 1538 was planned trip to Kazan. But in March, under the pressure of the Crimean Khan, the metropolitan government began to Kazan talks about the world. They stretched to illumine 1539, when Safa Giray resumed military action and attacked Moore. Kazan army, reinforced by Nogai and Crimean troops, Nizhny Novgorod and Murom ravaged land. Immediately Mongolian squad Prince Chury Narykova devastated neighborhood and Galic, destroying the town of Žilina, moved to Kostroma land. Under the Kostroma were oriented Russian shelf. On Plesset came stubborn struggle. The cost of enormous losses (in the middle of those killed were four Russian governors), the Russian troops were able to send the Tartars to flight, and releasing all full. In 1540, 8 th. Chury Narykova squad again ravaged land Kostroma. The Mongolian army was again overtaken by troops and commanders Holmskogo Hunchback, but was able to fight back and get away.

December 18, 1540 30000th Kazan army, reinforced Nogai and Crimean troops led by Safa Giray, has reappeared under the walls more often. The siege lasted a day or two, the Russian garrison to defend the city, but the Tatars captured in the districts of the town is full of great. Upon learning of the approach of Vladimir grand regiments, Safa Giray retreated ravaged nearby villages and in part, Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod place.

Military action alternated peace talks, during which Safa Giray tried to avoid reprisals from the Russian army, and then again raided Metropolitan Government. Metropolitan government, disillusioned ineffective against sudden raids of the Kazan Tatars, the pursuit of which was complicated array of forests, made a bet on the internal opposition Kazan. Moscow sought to remove the impact of the Crimea, by the hands of Kazan. Search starts dissatisfied with the policy of Khan, the dominance of the Crimean Tatars. The situation eased himself Safa Giray, who blamed part of the Kazan nobility of betrayal and began execution. One of the first was executed princess Kovgar-Shad, then destroyed the other prominent princes and MPD. The horror in his life forced Kazan know oppose the Crimean Khan and his advisors. In January 1546 the uprising began in Kazan. Safa Giray fled to the Nogai Horde, to his father-in-Yusuf Bey. Kazan temporary government headed by Churoy Narykova, Beyurgan-Seit and Kadish invited to the throne of Moscow's puppet Shah Ali. But he refused to let the city, along with come with him 4 th. Russian squad. In Kazan allowed only the Shah-Ali and weave Kasimov Tatars. The position of Shah Ali was very rather weak, due to the unpopularity of the new Khan. The new ruler of Kazan stood on the throne a month. Yusuf gave Safa Giray Nogai army, and he hit the Kazan. Shah Ali fled to Moscow. Immediately began a war that lasted until the sudden death of Safa Giray in March 1549.

To be continued …

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