In contrast to their own brethren of old times over the M48 and M60 M1 not had a chance to do some fighting on the battlefield. The first time, "Abrams" smelled gunpowder in 1982. According to the story of the 1st Russian military adviser, who took the role at this time in the training of Syrian tank on just received in Syria tanks T-72, this event occurred in the commission of the march break-3-T-72 tanks in southern Lebanon shortly before Israeli aggression against this country ("Operation Peace of Gaul"). Column moving along the road curved around a large hill, and when the first tank, in which the narrator was, and began to go out because of the mound, then all of a sudden he found at a distance of approximately 800 meters of three unknown tanks, which were not like Israel.
These tanks also moved in the column, and finding the Syrian machine, rapidly began to restructure in line for attack. The first to open fire of unknown car hit the tower was our third tank which just came from behind mound. The missile tank is not struck, but because of the strong dynamic impact car stalled. The crew at all it was moderate concussion. Second enemy tank, producing almost immediately with the first shot, hit in the middle column of T-72 tanks in the aft compartment, by disabling the engine. Seeing so brutal behavior of strangers, the narrator, as a tank commander gave the order to open fire on the last tank to the right and after his defeat at the average. Here adviser said the highest proficiency Syrian gunner which did not allow a 1st delay while aiming and firing.
It was decided to use the BPS. Performing with an interval of about 7 seconds two shots have gained two hits, both in the tower. The remaining third by a tank, he went away for two padded, tried to evacuate the wounded and the dead. But to make it absolutely could not, because the T-72 opened fire from the coaxial machine gun. After taking away the wounded, unknown tank quickly withdrew. On reaching the damaged car and making sure that no one is unsafe, the crew climbed out, looked around the tanks. Doubt that this was not confirmed by Israeli tanks because they were unlike any in the "Centurion" or the M60, or even more so to just show the "Merkava", his adviser photo beheld and confused because he could not. form at the 2-tank also killed was not like Israel. Willing to take one tank in tow, but considering the remains of fuel (it was necessary to tow and own tank) have decided to get to the part of the authorities and report the location of enemy machine, then take measures to evacuate. Shell-shocked crew, coming to himself, was able to have a tank, and the column has popped up in the working path. But the scheduled time on the route, for technical reasons has tripled, and the tanks arrived home only NIGHT MODE. Having reported on the form of the incident, decided to go in the morning to send reconnaissance. But fluctuations in the fact that what-nibudt remains, there were many who followed in the morning and confirmed. In the square, where there was a battle, destroyed tanks was not, but there were many traces of wheeled vehicles, apparently tractors, which were evacuated and tanks. Later, when comparing the pictures of recognition of tanks, which came out a collision, it was identified, surprisingly many South American M1 "Abrams". Apparently he passed the test in Israel with Israeli professionals to familiarize with the tank, but why it was necessary to start a fight, if the tank is hidden, no one realized. Some implied that having a high-speed tank and is considered the crews 'Abrams' more reliable reservation, they want to impose on the lucrative fight for their ranges and abilities, perhaps, take the trophy, because the T-72 or the Yankees nor the Israelis at that time was not. The ending of this fight, which is safe to say, was for the Syrians, raised in them at a high level assessment of safety and efficacy of new Russian tank guns.
Another more important and well-known episode battle of M1 tanks was holding ground phase of the war against Iraq seized Kuwait in 1990. After declaring war Iraq coalition member countries, except the United States were to England, France, Syria, etc., were collected powerful tank group, is 5,600 tanks. Its base consists of a series of South American M1 tanks. First "Abrams" in the modification of the M1 and 1RM1 from the 24th Mechanized Infantry Division arrived in August 1990 to Saudi Arabia, where the main forces were focused South American Expeditionary Force. By November, the number was 580 M1 tanks and 123 M1A1. But the introduction of a credible threat by the Iraqi side of chemical and bacteriological weapons led the South American side to reconsider the proposed use in hostilities M1 filled with 105-mm cannon. The latter had a limited ability to protect the crew from NBC, also affecting low performance 105-mm guns with a probable meeting with the elite units of the Iraqi tanks, which is what the Republican Guard armored units, equipped by Russian tanks made of T-72M and T-72M1. These machines in 1988-89. were modernized to enhance the security of the upper frontal parts of the hull of the tank. This was achieved by welding additional armor plate with a width of 30 mm air gap equal to the same 30 mm. This measure was taken after examining the ability of the Iraqis protect tanks from damage by different ammunition 120mm rifled tank gun British L11A5, mounted on the Iranian tanks "Chieftain", seized by Iraq during the last war between the two countries.
Spent strengthening the body, and the tower of the T-72 held the British shells, not allowed to reach the same penetration of projectiles at a distance of 1000 meters. Because the U.S. Army decided to use the M1 tanks arrived and its improved model IP M1 in the 2nd tier I attack range forces, making their bid to destroy the secondary goals, as older T-54 and T-55, which were used as long-term fire point. In the first echelon of the attacking forces, it was decided to use the M1A1 tanks in the modifications and M1A1NA, because they had a better system of collective NBC protection, more efficient 120-mm gun and a reservation. For this part of the 7th corps, is the basis of U.S. forces in Operation "Desert Shield" and "Desert Storm", as units Expeditionary Force U.S. Marine Corps, were quickly re-equipped with tanks above. By February 1991 the South American troops in Saudi Arabia had 1,956 M1A1 tanks (1223 M1A1NA and 733 M1A1). With the arrival of new machines, which were in the main from West Germany, came their modernization. Knowing the properties of the low running track T156, tanks pereobuvatsya new T158.
But by the early ground phase of the war were given re only 20% of all cars. Great threat to the attacking units were minefields set by Iraqi forces in the first lane own defense. To solve such complex tasks, such as breaking barriers, part of the "Abrams" tank mine included in the company, was the installation of additional equipment for mine trawl of the "plow". The decision to equip such a device specifically for trawling was cho
sen after comparative tests with wheel mine trawl Israeli production, which in turn was created on the basis of Russian trawl KMT-6. The official conclusion of the choice in favor of the mine plow was based on the fact that the first was easier to 7 tons (4 to 11, at the wheel). But soon there were reports in the press that the premise was not only the lowest mass. In the explosion that followed during a trawl tow wheel, front torsion bars and hydraulic shock absorbers "Abrams" is not maintained, and machine broke down. The presence of a mine plow imposes restrictions on the tank when applying enemy WMD, because the construction of the trawl to anticipate the removal of the periscope for the driver wiring hydraulic hose control trawl. To bring the plow into position to one of the crew members to get out of the tank and remove the safety checks. The presence of trawl type plow though protected tank a mine, but with all this appeared excessive power consumption during trawling, which in turn in the criteria for the highest temperature in the desert cause overheating of the oil in the motor and box, because the weight of the tank increased to 67 tons (version M1A1NA).
Because the use of mine trawl was limited and was used when the soil was loose. In other cases, the charges were used elongated and regular mine detectors. Which began January 17, 1991 offensive air operation lasted 43 day or MHC. Her goal was destruction of air defense of Iraq, the principal objects of the country's strategic goals and operational-tactical defense of Iraqi troops. Altogether, according to the statement of the American press, was destroyed during the aerial bombing of about 500 tanks, more than 500 guns out of action, virtually all airfields, air defense radars, anti-aircraft missiles and destroyed 476 aircraft. February 24 of the same year battle actions against Iraq entered the second phase of air-land operation "Desert Storm". South American troops were grouped into three operating groups: the main of them, as already mentioned, was the 7th Corps, consisting of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, 1st Armored Division, 3rd Armored Division and 1 Mechanised Division. The second group was the 18th Airborne Corps, which included the 3rd armored cavalry regiment and the 24th Mechanized Division.
At the direction of the seaside acted Marine Expeditionary Force in the 2-tank battalions of marines and parts second U.S. Armored Division. Groups operate at 3 different locations: the Central — 7th in the West — the 18th and in the coastal areas — expeditionary forces. The main attack was assigned to the 7th Army Corps United States, acting together with the 1st Armored Division in England. Their combined effect was made from the area of the joint borders of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, with the task of clipping and environment of Iraqi troops in Kuwait. WEC 18 was advancing toward populated Fri Ash Shuba, Al Nasar with the task of promoting the defeat of 7 AK United States, 7 AK Iraq and the fifth-eighth day out on the limit of the final tasks to the river Euphrates. Another blow in the direction of populated Fri Wafra, El-jah, Kuwait expeditionary force was applied, with the task to defeat the Iraqi division of the first 3-tier AC and the assistance of an air assault force the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division, as with Egyptian and Saudi Arabian troops to the finale of the third day take over the capital Kuwait.
Land grouping Iraq in the south of the country and had a puzzle in Kuwait conducting relentless defense to hold their positions, put a tangible loss of MHC during their transition to the coming of the force and the management of the U.S. and its allied states in this war to go on an acceptable trade-off for Baghdad. But in the criteria capture the MHC strategic initiatives and the complete domination of its aircraft in the air this solution was not feasible tasks. After suffering for 38 days of continuous air strikes MHC languid loss, being cut off from the strategic rear and testing in connection with this severe shortage of ammunition, fuel, water and other support, the Iraqi commanders still took a desperate step — to organize a centralized withdrawal from areas surrounded by the enemy that in the end she succeeded and True, a huge part of the technique had to quit due to lack of fuel, the Americans also portrayed the press as much Tipo destroyed equipment best action of its own army and air force command for Iraqi withdrawal own main forces organized individual samples exceed the line self-defense in order to counter and combat snare advanced units MHC Since February 25th is one of the infantry battalions of the 12th Panzer Division kitted Iraqi T-59 tanks, entered the military contact with the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment who had armed with M1A1 tanks and in force at the forefront of 7 AK United States.
Despite the almost complete destruction of the Iraqis, though, were able to buy time for the removal of the main forces of division Sometimes it happened that the Iraqi tank crews in the fight against a strong opponent, whom he was, namely, "Abrams", had to be used to pay the true wonders of imagination and courage to example, catchy martial collision, passed on February 26, about 6:00 am on the outskirts of Kuwait City near the capital's airport tank units of the 16th Motorized Infantry Division, Iraq, equipment 9 T-62 tanks and are trying to get out of the environment against the company applied the M 1A1 1 Battalion of the U.S. Marine Corps, stationed in a combat patrol, an unusual tactical maneuver to lull the enemy's attention, the Iraqis by deploying towers and throwing back the white flag moved in the direction of breaking South American tank crews, believing weakened the control of the approaching enemy, and paid for that when the distance between machines opposing sides reduced to 300 meters, Iraqi tanks, guns suddenly deploying their own guns, and inflicted massive fire damage to the enemy in this fast-moving battle was destroyed 5M 1A1 and almost as much damage to the Iraqis received are different, having the orders of Egyptian troops, together with parts of 3 AK Iraq.
In general, however, since the Iraqi command in the current situation, the main objective of becoming the self-preservation of combat troops and discharge them into the operational depth of the defense on the territory of Iraq, the stern resistance actually rendered was not a result of a more or less large tank battles were not enough , about 3 more noticeable was the clashes between the M 1A1 and Iraqi T-72 in the Iraqi air force base Saman, which is 300 km east of Baghdad According to Russian military attache Colonel in Iraq in Potsalyuka in that battle the Americans lost 68 tanks, most of it was his own, "Abrams" In proof of this in Moscow "classified" were sent photos of destroyed M 1 Other 2 NIGHT MODE battle took place near Basra, the Yankees were enemies of Iraq are no clear division NPC data of combat casualties in those battles no, as representatives of the Iraqi Ministry of Defense said that it is very satisfied battle survivability of Russian T-72 tanks which effortlessly hit "Abrams".
In the truthfulness of these words can be said that South American units did not have gained its objectives, namely, to break the NPC units and assist the Government of Iraq's Shiite opposition rebels who are in the environment — confirms the validity of the representation of the Iraqi side. All in all, for always conducting operations in Kuwait and Iraq, South American tank units irrevocably lost a little more than 50 tanks &
quot;Abrams" Despite the significant an advantage over the enemy, who at the theater were in the main legacy standards such as T-54/55/62 , is the number of lost vehicles can be considered a huge Especially since in the near future environmentalists about what they say in the Arabian desert, the site of the fighting, scattered about 20,000 uranium cores from tank guns, threatening environment environmental disaster mathematics can be a straightforward method to calculate how much ammunition had on any of the 500 lined T-72, T-55 hardly used so expensive shells "Abrams" is not justified assigned him the title of "the most impenetrable and secure the tank", the initial approval of the Western press about the fact that was not lost a single tank, later they were the same and refuted.
A little later it turned out that Russian 125-mm. BPSy first generation who were in Iraqi T-72, still pierce tank armor "Abrams", although at a distance of approximately 800 meters, and of technological reliability of the tank left much to be desired, as we wrote a bit higher. "Knock-out" panels that were scheduled to be a constructive way to save the crew during the detonation of ammunition, were also not understood the significance of, example is the photo of the destroyed "Abrams" is just due to an internal explosion shots. Despite the flight records, the turret housing is cracked, and all the interior destroyed by explosion, resulting in the tank burned.
M1A1 tanks lined in Iraq in 1991
The following episodes introducing M1 tanks in Yugoslavia, Kosovo and Somalia, despite all the assurances of the Western media, military call can only with great tension. The introduction of tanks in the form of a mobile gun emplacements at checkpoints after what has been tested in Iraq, the outlook does not confirm the Yankees the "best" tank world. So the statement that in the M1 quite good but the German and British armor gun deserves the severest approval.