Machines amphibious Germany

It is believed that the first amphibious car in Germany did in 1904. Its inventor was skipper of northern Germany, to equip your boat a couple of car axles — front having managed, but not the drive wheels and the rear axle to the drive wheels (drive motor boat). This skipper was granted several patents for "car boat", but it was not developed due to the very low maneuverability, especially in the coastal ground, because it had only been leading the rear wheels, in other words it was amphibious wheel formula 4×2.

Presumably this "car boat" (in other words "Mobile-bot") was 7.2 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. Total weight — 2 tons. Motor power 28.0 hp (20.6 kW). Most water speed of 6.5 kilometers per hour and provides with 2 propellers (diameter 320 mm). Conventional energy loading screws equaled 128.2 kW/m2.

When the power density of the vessel 10.3 kW / t relative speed on the water was 0.51. The total thrust propellers, with respect to the hydraulic square screws equated approximately 23.57 kN/m2.

More about this "car boat" no disk imaging, apart from the fact that its forgotten after another and likely very strong stuck in the coastal zone of the North Sea.

Despite this, her appearance has led to the creation of other wheeled amphibian "Hoppe-Cross", which is made to equip the customs service. Axels newest amphibious car was 4×4, 4 tons total weight, engine power was 45 hp (33.12 kW), it was arranged in the middle of the boat. Power was selected from 2-all crank: a front end to the propeller shaft via vertical gear, shaft and coupling, and from the back through the clutch, the vertical transfer case, rollers and a box on the final drive axle.

It is worth noting that the PTO with a pair of ends of the crankshaft, while complicating the construction of amphibians was rational for several reasons, chief among which was that if such scheme amphibious propeller drive out independent, in other words, was not associated with the gears in the box.

Overall dimensions of the machine were as follows: length — 6800 mm, width — 2100 mm, wheelbase — 3170 mm, its front wheels — 2300 mm, its outer wheel rear dual wheels — 2450 mm.

Water speed was 11 kilometers per hour and provides a propeller diameter of 450 mm. Specific power amphibian was 8.28 kWh / m Three Froude number for this displacement was equal 0.77. Conventional energy loading propeller — 208.4 kW/m2. Emphasis propeller divided by the area of the hydraulic screw, approximately 34.81 kN/m2.

Disk imaging how many of these cars were produced and how they are used, no. But the two amphibious vehicles show that at the dawn of amfibiostroeniya in Germany was an attempt to make a motor boat overland performance by auto bridges and summing them power from the motor boat.

In the following years in Germany motorization progressed very pretty, but in the years before the First World War, and during the war actually work to create similar machines were not conducted.

Only in 1932, Hans Trippel 24-year-old design engineer on his own initiative started to create an amphibious vehicle. But he did not go the way of his predecessors, who have adapted boats to go by land, but, on the contrary, at first, began to change the design of vehicles to ensure their parameters navigable. Triple altered the structure of the chassis DKW two-stroke two-cylinder engine and the drive to the front axle. He established at the rear propeller, which was driven by the auxiliary drive from the box.

First successes have allowed triples already done in 1933, the second amphibious car. As the chassis was used passenger car "Triumph" of Adler. This model also had the drive to the front wheels, but use a more powerful four-stroke engine 4-htsilindrovy. The drive and propeller arrangement was similar to the first model. On these machines, it became clear in the Wehrmacht in 1934 by G. triple issued first military order to create an experimental amphibious vehicle.

The reference model for the small car amphibious vehicles for the Wehrmacht was the standard light vehicle with all-wheel drive and manageable. To install the machine gun armament in the front of her car engine systems, clutch and gearbox have been moved to the middle part. The aft propeller installed and the drive from the box. But as shown by the following tests, a schema change assemblies were not entirely successful.

To continue the work on the creation of amphibious vehicles G. Trippel bought a small plant in the Saarland, which in 1935 made a version of SG 6.

The car had a bearing 6 SG iron in displacement housing. Wheel formula — 4×4. Initially set at SG 6 4-cylinder engine Adler, and later 6-cylinder engine of Opel. Manual had limited slip differentials that increase throughput car. Aft propeller was removed from the driver's body in a niche at the output of the machine to the land. This model was produced until 1944 inclusive. With all of this the total number of vehicles does not exceed 1,000. Naturally, the results of the combat operation in the design of the car once a year were made configuration, but hard enough to keep track of them.

In one embodiment, the vehicle engine and its systems assemble in front of the body, which had spoon-shaped, which can reduce the resistance of the water. In the middle of the seats have been installed for the driver and four passengers and controls. At the rear of the fuel tank was located in volume 60 liters. and the niche in which you travel on land cleaned propeller (three blades, diameter 380 mm). The drive propeller PTO, which was placed on the box, shifted by 140 mm to the left side of the longitudinal axis of the machine. With a vertical arrangement of speakers of a chain drive the propeller, this led to the creation of turning moments deviate to the right side of the car while driving through the water. The shift to the right of the car or eliminated by turning to the left front wheel alignment, either by turning the screw to the column axis alignment with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. But in both cases, the elimination of differences led to a decrease in water velocity.

When the column drive screws were placed vertically, virtually the whole hydraulic area of the screw is below the plane of the bottom of the car and they are not screened. This provided a leak to the propeller water, but increased the possibility of damage during movement through the shallow water, leaving the water to save and log into it. In this regard, the bottom of the sump guard column installed crutch that protected the screw from damage in the event of contact with underwater obstacles, and did not lead to his niche in cleaning the body. Because if you were not aware of the conditions on the beach, out of the water and the entrance to it was carried out with retracted the screw through the top rod wheels. Screw being lowered into position only after the car absolutely pop up. But it is in almost all cases not provided to overcome the foreshore.

With the power of 40.48 kW motor vehicle conventional energy loading screw was 357.28 kW/m2, which provided the motion measured at the deepest water at speeds up to 12 km / h The relative speed with all this (the Froude number in displacement) was equal to 0.92. Management while driving on the water is a work you position the front steering wheels. This method is guaranteed to turn a good maneuverability when driving with quite bolshennymi or maximum speed. When driving at low speed maneuverability was inadequate, espec
ially on the river having a perceptible flow rate.

Wheel suspension — with swing-independent levers in the transverse plane. Spiral springs are elastic suspension elements. The highest speed on the highway for the specific power 17.6 kW / t equal to 105 km per hour.

Mass-dimensional characteristics: gross weight — 2.3 tons, capacity — 0.8 tons, length — 4.93 m, -1.86 m width, wheelbase — 2,430 m track — 1.35m, ground clearance — 30 cm

In 1937, the plant in the Saarland have developed a sports car floating SK 8. This car was less weight, had a streamlined body, equipped with 2-liter engine Adler, front-wheel drive were. The propeller was installed in the rear recess of the motionless body. The car in over 2-years, to carry on the rivers tested in Germany as in the Mediterranean and the North Sea. This development once again interested in the Wehrmacht.

The plant G. triple in 1938, designed and made the latest model of amphibious vehicle. The main configuration of the model concerned the chassis of the vehicle. The car has received more streamlined shape, removable lid closed niche rear wheels, there are two doors rather enormous size and some other innovations that were not in previous models of amphibious vehicles Germany.

G. Trippel in 1939 by the Wehrmacht was commissioned to create the basis for SG 6 amphibious vehicles for sapper units. She had to have more, Up to 2 meters, the body and capable of carrying up to 16 people.

Here in the story of amphibious vehicles G. triples have to do a little break, because in 1939-1940 the Wehrmacht decided to equip the Army amphibious different techniques that would be useful during the invasion of Britain.

Among the first works in this direction was the creation of craft created for light tanks, allowed them to swim wide water barriers, and then the merits of land to dump auxiliary pontoons and equipment which provides buoyancy and speed. Further transport was to act as ordinary tank.

One such flotation device (Panzerkampfwagen II mit Schwimmkorper) was established in Rosslau Sachsenberg by the end of 1940. It was intended for light tanks Pz Kpfw II Aust C. During this study tested two types of additional pontoons, in one case, the pontoons were fixed on the sides, (in which they significantly increased the resistance of the water as the width of the craft with the tank was full) in the 2 — m the case of the main pontoons located at the back and front of the hull (in this case, reduced water resistance, achieved more than the highest rate during movement on the water).

Light tanks Pz Kpfw II, which are produced in Germany from June 1938 ode to family firms (Henschel, Daimler-Benz, MAN and others) have a combat weight — 8900 kg, length — 4,81 m, width — 2,22 m and height — 1.99 m Crew tvnka were three people. The tanks had bulletproof armor sheets with a width of turret and hull 14.5 mm. The arms included — 20 mm gun and 7.92-mm machine gun. They were installed in the tower of the radial rotation. Maybach engine output of 190 kW allows a speed over land up to 40 km per hour on the water (assuming tank sensor watercraft) — 10 km per hour. Amphibious propulsion wheel driven caterpillar drive.

Borgward company on the basis of 2-track radio-controlled versions of machines designed for mine clearance (Minenraumwagen) has developed an experimental floating car for the same purpose. It is equipped with a 36 kW engine, was 4-of trolley track drive and three-blade propeller with a stern mounted with 2 water rudders on the edges of it set up to control the machine afloat. Infy to use this experimental radio-controlled car is not amphibious.

The Wehrmacht in 1936 ordered the company Rheinmetall development and the ready special machinery tracked floating in landing operations — LWS (Land-Wasser-Schlepper). Brand new car was supposed to not only carry troops in the machine body, and tow floating wheel trailers with different capacity.

Initially it was assumed that LWS will be applied to the limited European waters and in the invasion of Britain. But after the failure of the invasion of enthusiasm for flying machines in Germany practically extinct.

LWS was initially tracked tug, which was designed to carry 20 people in its own housing (crew of 3 people). Gross vehicle weight of 16 to 17 tons. Armament for LWS has not been established. Amphibious vehicle equipped with a towing device and winch. Dimensions LWS: Length — 8600 mm, width — 3160 mm, height — 3130 mm.

The machine frame was made of iron sheets, his nose was pointed shape, the bottom was smooth. Some hull plates, especially the nasal bottom sheet reinforced by stiffening ribs (vyshtampovka). Cutting of the body was placed in the middle and front parts of the body. She towered about a meter above the roof of the case. In front of the cabin there was a branch management (three crew members), followed by the Department of landing. In front of the windows were closed with a large glass, the side windows were cutting sheets.

206 kW carburetor V-shaped 12-cylinder engine Maybach HL 120 NRMV-12 (mounted on the pre-series machines) was located in the rear part. The engine is optimized for speed to 40 km / h on the highway, a power density — 12.87 kW / t Progress in store for combustible — 240 km. Caterpillar tracks had the rear rails and front wheel drive. Chassis had on each side of the road wheels on 8 and 4 support. But the prevailing poor maneuverability and mobility on land.

The movement through the water tunnel was provided by two four-bladed propellers diameter of 800 mm. For screws installed water rudders. The highest no-load speed on the water was 12.5 miles per hour. Froude number in displacement (no load) was equated with 0,714. Conventional energy loading screws — 205.0 kW/m2. Amphibious properties were evaluated as excellent machines.

Floating tractor on land and afloat could tow a three or four-wheeled amphibious trailer (capacity of 10 and 20 tonnes respectively). These trailers intended for the transport of various military cargo.

The case is a three-axle trailer pontoon having parallel vertical side. Trailer Length — 9000 mm, width — 3100 mm, height — 2700 mm. Dimensions of the loading platform: length — 8500 mm, width — 2500 mm. To facilitate the loading and unloading of trailer equipped with a folding rear hinged board.

Overall dimensions of a four-float trailer equated length — 10000 mm, width — 3150 mm, height — 3000 mm. Own trailer weight was 12.5 million kg. To increase the patency while driving cross-country on wheels dressed caterpillar tracks.

Perhaps, not including 7 pre-made amphibious cars 14 more cars second series LWS. Machines second series had some design improvements and partial booking the case, but in fact the same technical properties as well as pre-series cars. On machines second series was set V-shaped 12-cylinder, 220 kW carburetor engine Maybach HL 120 TRM.

Amphibious vehicle LWS used on the Eastern Front and in North Africa. And they took part in Europe and in the assault on Tobruk.

In the middle of 1942 to substitute non-armored LWS made armored tracked carrier Pz F (Panzerfahre). As the base was taken medium tank PzKpfw IV Aust F (chassis, engine, units box). It was done by two experienced reference. The data tracked armored carriers were able to haul the water and on land floating wheel trailers, heavy-duty.

Now let us return to the amphibious machines triple. After the end of hostilities in France Trippel
in June 1940 acquired the Bugatti car factory in Alsace, which also organized the creation of amphibious vehicles. All wheels of the car were the leading and manageable. Propulsion on the water motionless served one three-bladed fixed propeller screw.

The major share of production G.Trippelya were improved all-wheel drive SG 6, kitted 2.5-liter 6-cylinder engine of Opel. These vehicles have also developed a floating-axle trailers that are towed vehicle and the various military cargo transported by water.

All previous amphibious vehicles had a triple open top of the body, but in 1942 was made batch of cars with one hundred percent private housing and sun roof. These machines were equipped units propaganda.

In '43 designed and built a highly experienced standard all-wheel drive amphibious vehicle SG 7, with V-shaped 8-cylinder engine, air-cooled "Tatra", which was located in the rear part. The car standard is not met, but has become a base for the creation of intelligence floating-wheeled vehicle E3, armed with machine guns and 20-millimeter cannon. Booking Corps amphibious been differentiated (thickness from 5.5 to 14.5 mm). Sheets had great angles. The total length of the armored car — 5180 mm, width -1900 mm. This car is in 1943-1944 produced small batches. In October 1944, triple notified to discontinue floating-wheeled vehicle E3.

Axels E 3 — 4×4. The engine "Tatra" which had an air cooling and power of 52 kW was placed in the stern. Propulsion on the water were two tunnels screw propeller. In 1944 he was created by modification of E 3-wheeled amphibious armored vehicle E 3M, designed to transport ammunition.

In addition, in 1944, made a flying snowmobile that is not counting the four wheels had great runners for sliding on snow and swimming. In the rear of the car was installed a huge aircraft propeller diameter. With it moved snowmobile on snow and water. But it was made only three of these cars.

Somewhat later developed for SG 6 additional equipment that has significantly improved its terrain on soils having low bearing capacity. The emergence of the boiler, jams amphibious vehicles during entry into the water, leaving it as in the shallow water. In this case, the motion was provided only a pull of the drive wheels, which greatly decreased due to the reduction in vehicle weight trailer. The decrease was due to the impact of the last hydrostatic forces maintain (buoyancy) on the car.

At the end of the second world war in Germany was forbidden to prepare different items of military equipment, which are set and amphibious vehicles. Despite this Triple able to make better and more streamlined design amphibious vehicle SG 6. In addition, he was able to carry out tests in 1951, the car in the Swiss army, he stood perfectly.

In the following years G.Trippel active on sport compact cars, which is manufactured by Protec in Tuttlingen, and later in Stuttgart. Among these vehicles was also in "Amphibian" — an open, small, amphibious sports car. In 1950, he was tested on land and water, and was the predecessor made after which the "Amfikara."

The idea of light amphibious vehicle really liked the Yankees — fans of sports cars. It has promoted the creation of the United States of "Amfikar" who resides in New York City. Vice president and technical director of the company became G. Trippel. In 1960, the machine-building factory in Karlsruhe, who belonged to a group of Quandt (IWK), started the mass production of "Amfikara." Later in the production of the car was also attended by German machine-building factory (DWM) in Berlin and Borsigvalde, who also belonged to the group Quandt. In two years, was to be released about 25 thousand cars. These cars were produced only for "Amfikar" which were forwarded to the United States to implement. The selling price of the car was about 3.4 million dollars.

The car "Amfikar" was a four-seater amphibious sports car convertible. While driving on dry land, he is no different from ordinary passenger cars. Most highway speed — 110 km / h, acceleration to 80 km / h required 22 seconds. Average fuel consumption when driving on land — 9.6 liters per 100 kilometers. The fuel tank has been designed for 47 liters ..

Two-door bearing displacement hull made of steel sheets of different thickness, were attached to the streamlined shape, reducing the resistance of the water. The lower part of the body and the area in which the door frame reinforced tubular elements that provide the desired hardness. At the door there were additional locks that were used during the movement through the water. These locks ensure reliable sealing door even if the vehicle came in with the water is not completely closed locks. The trunk was placed in the front of the chassis. It was the spare wheel. Part of goods in transit fit into the free space behind the rear seats.

The machine had a removable top and going down the side windows, which could go down when driving on water and on land.

In the back of the British settled in-line 4-cylinder, 4-stroke carbureted engine (power 28.18 kW, 4750 rev / min). Placing the motor in the back of the car driven by the need to give the stern when moving through the water and more than a conventional drive screws. At the same time, the assembly made it difficult to cool down the engine. In connection with this liquid cooling system equipped with an additional oil cooler in a stream of air that cools the radiator.

Manual wheel drive rear-wheel drive. Clutch — Dry, single plate. Box — absolutely synchronized, 4-speed. PTO on propellers installed on the housing box. Power take-off shaft descended from the crotch. This system allows you to turn the drive propellers and any transfer of matter from the criterion movement. Separate lever is used to control power takeoff. He had three positions — off, front and reverse. The gear ratio PTO — 3.0.

Chassis had independent suspension with longitudinal arms that provided vsepostoyanstvo gauge. The elastic suspension components — coil springs and telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers placed inside them. Tire size — 6,40 x13.

Drum brakes were not sealing. In this regard, all the important parts were anti-corrosion coating. Drive hydraulic brakes. The parking brake has a mechanical drive brake mechanisms of back wheels.

The movement on the water provides work for a couple of propellers installed in tunnels in the rear of the hull on both sides of the engine compartment. Propellers — right rotation, with three. To produce the polyamide resin used.

The highest rate of motion measured at the deepest water is 10 km / h (power density — 20.9 kW / t, the emphasis propellers — 2.94 kN, the Froude number in displacement — 0.84). Fuel consumption at the maximum speed of less than 12 liters. per hour. At a speed of 5 km per hour fuel consumption was reduced to 2.3 liters. per hour. Changing direction provides a turn-driven front wheels. To remove the machine from seawater, which fell into the car through the seals and damage to various leaks, as in the case of splashing while swimming in sea, the body was placed in the bilge bilge pumps having electric on-board 12 volt power supply. Pump flow equals 27.3 liters per minute.

Mass-dimensional properties of "Amfikar": vehicle weight — 1050 kg gross weight — 1350 kg load capacity — 300 kg. Rassredotachivanie weight of the car on the bridges: 550 kg — on the front bridge, 830 kg — the rear axle. Total length — 4330 mm, width — 1565 mm, height — 1520 mm. Ground clearance — 253 mm. Wheelbase — 2100 mm, the rear track — 1260 mm, front — 1212 mm.

In Germany, from 1942 to 1944 for th
e Wehrmacht except amphibious vehicles produced different versions TRIPLE small amphibious vehicles Pkw K2s cooked factories "Volkswagen". They're not much different than each other. In total, was about 15 thousand copies of these cars.

The most vserasprostranennoy model of this small amphibious car was VW 166. Its total gross weight equal to 1,345 kilograms, load capacity — 435 kilograms. Wheel formula — 4×4. Carbureted engine capacity of 18.4 kW (rotational speed of 3000 rev / min) had a rear seating.

Motor power was removed from the 2-all its crankshaft. From the 1st to the end of the summing up of all wheel drive vehicle (through a manual). On the nose crankshaft power was selected through the actuator shaft coupling and the vertical three-row chain drive — to work descended into the lower position three-bladed propeller. In the operating position, in fact the entire area of the propeller (diameter 330 mm) is below the plane of the bottom of the car, a protective screw crutch — to 50 millimeters from the surface of the soil.

On the one hand, this arrangement screws, actually increased the resistance of the water because of his work, not screened enclosure and dripping water, as it should, increased efficiency and traction screws with his work for the cabinet. On the other hand, this arrangement greatly increases the possibility of damage to the propeller while moving through the shallow water at the inlet and outlet of the water and out of it.

Because the screw to prevent damage when in contact with the underwater ground it produced a folding unit in the vertical plane. With all this going on cam clutch disengagement and automatically stops the supply of engine power. Once the protective crutch was going underwater obstacles block the propeller fell into position under the action of its weight, and driven part claw coupling was blocked with the leading part of the coupling under the force of the propeller thrust. The leading part of the coupling was attached to the drive shaft. The rotation of the propeller blades was happening inside the guard ring. In the upper part of the protective ring placed a protective shield that kept the choke to the blades of the propeller of air to avoid falling traction. The whole unit propeller in motion by land ascended to the top position and the stopper on the case.

Beedvernaya hull design was sound. The housings are made of 1-mm iron sheets. But its shortcomings should be attributed to the large number of seals and submarine parts of the body, that when they wear caused to enter the body seawater. Another feature of the case was the absence of wheel arches shielded the higher part of the wheels and slightly increases the buoyancy of the vehicle in store.

The car had independent suspension all wheels with their swing in the longitudinal plane. Tire size — 5.25 x16. Torsion bars were doing the role of elastic suspension parts. Rear track — 1230 mm, front — 1220 mm. Dimensions: Length — 3825 mm, width — 1480 mm, height with the established tent — 1615 mm. Ground clearance under the rear axle — 245 mm, under the front axle — 240 mm, under the bottom — 260 mm.

The highest speed on the highway — 80 miles per hour (specific power — 13.68 kWh / t, fuel consumption — 8.5 liters per 100 km). The highest speed measured at the deepest water — 10 km per hour. Froude number in displacement — 0.84.

The main drawback of the car design, as well as triple car was the lack of ability to directly use the work of the leading wheels and propellers during entry into the water out of it and swimming in shallow water. This significantly reduces the data throughput criteria.

In the years 1960-1964 in the Strait of Messina for marketing purposes have been demonstrated seasoned model cars "Volkswagen" with closed body.

Later in Germany made passenger floating car Amphi-Ranger 2800SR has the following technical features: wheel formula — 4×4, weight — 2800 kg, load capacity — 860 kg, engine power 74 or 99 kW, and power density 26.4 or 35.35 kWh / t Dimensions: Length — 4651 mm, width — 1880 mm, base — 2500 mm.

The car body is made of 3-mm duralumin sheets for up to 6 people. Form bow — spoon-, bottom — smooth. In the rear of the hull was a niche in which you travel on land cleaned propeller.

The car with the engine capacity of 74 kW developed the highest speed of 120 km / h (highway) and 15 km / h (on the water). Froude number in displacement — 1.12. The highest speed of the car with the engine mounted 99 kW was 140 km / h on the highway and 17 km / h on water. Freeboard 500 mm. Circulation radius (when the wheel is turned off and the propeller) does not exceed 5 meters. The vehicle may be operated on the water at the height of waves up to 2 meters, setting a protective tent. On the water management was carried out using the front steering wheels.

Of the other samples, which were developed in the late 60's and put on the series, it is worth noting the car ferry and bridge M2, which had five modifications. Creating organized in factories Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz and Eisenwerke Kaiserslautern. The machine is used in German, English and Singaporean armies.

Ferry-bridge design amphibious vehicles armies of many countries, including Germany and, allow you to change the method of crossing techniques depending on the conditions. In some cases, the cars are used as a single or composite ferries, having an inflated capacity, in others — they are designed to lay pontoon bridges of varying length and load capacity with two-track or single-track traffic funneling cars. To do this, on the roof of the machine body established two additional hard iron pontoon, which, by means of hydraulic system before entering the water fall close to the body with both sides making a turn with all this at 180 degrees on the lower side hinges. In the bow of the pontoon installed one 600 millimeter propeller. 3rd 650 millimeter propeller mounted in a recess bow of the hull under the cab of the main machine. Screw can rise and fall in a niche of it, also spin in a horizontal plane.

As the car moves afloat astern, above the cabin organized additional position control where the crew could do the preliminary and the main work on the use of the car as a ferry-bridge machine. In the rear of the hull and additional pontoons (while driving on the water, they were nose) installed volnootrazhatelnye shields that prevent leakage of retaining the bow wave on the machine frame and pontoons. To remove the sea water in the body of the main machine to install several bilge pumps with electric.

To make it easier to work with additional pontoons during their ascent and descent, and for loading and unloading of small-borne cargo along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle for transport small crane installed capacity.

Axels car ferry and bridge M2 — 4×4. All steering wheels, equipped independent suspension. Tire size — 16.00h20.

The machine is equipped with with 2 diesel V-shaped 8-cylinder engines Deutz Model F8L714 (131.0 kW capacity each, the maximum speed of 2300 rev / min). The specific power of the machine when driving on land without load — 5.95 kW / ton

Its weight of the car 22 thousand kg. Overall dimensions when driving on dry land in the transport position: length — 11315 mm, width — 3579 mm, height — 3579 mm. Base machine — 5350 mm, the rear track — 2161 mm, front — 2130 mm. Ground clearance — adjustable from 600 to 840 mm. Machine width with detailed ramps and lowered additional pontoons — 14,160 mm.

The highest speed on the highway — 60 km / h, the speed in store for fuel — one thousand kilometers. Turning diameter — 25.4 m, the relative width of rotation, in other words, the diameter, divided by the length of the car — 2.24.

The movement on the water provides work for 2-600-mm screw propellers with supply of power from the 1 st of the engines (conventional energy loading screw — 231.4 kW/m2). Another engine turns the 650-mm screw that is used to control the car afloat (its conventional power loading — 394 kW/m2). In addition, the management board afloat used propellers.

The speed of the machine through the water up to 14 km / h, the speed in store for fuel — up to 6 hours (the Froude number in displacement — 0.74).

Experience of using a ferry-bridge machine M2 given the opportunity to outline the main lines of modifications to its structure. Swatch on the new machine M2D provided for the installation onboard Myagenko inflatable vessels will enhance the capacity up to 70 tons. In the subsequent models — MZ — the direction of movement in the water and the land was similar (M2 machine in motion on the water carried astern). At the wheel arches for the growth of tonnage located inflatable vessel. In addition, four removable span of the structure were changed by 3 while increasing the size of the bridge link in the band.

It is worth noting that the first 70 years of some German firm began to develop military amphibious vehicles, along with companies from other countries. This approach was comfortable in many judgments, the main one of which was the legalization of the work around the surviving post-war restrictions on the establishment of military equipment.

For example, the German company MAN and the Belgian company BN developed armored SIBMAS. In the main it was exported to the countries of Latin America and Southeast Asia. Can be mounted on an armored car tower with different sets of weapons.

First model made in 1976. Combat weight — 18.5 thousand kg. Wheel formula — 6×6. Dimensions: Length — 7320 mm, width — 2500 mm, height of the roof — 2240 mm, ground clearance — 400 mm.

For the production of the machine body used iron armored plates that provide protection from bullets of 7.62 mm.

Management office was in the front portion, the place of the driver, it controls and monitoring devices are placed on the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

The separation of the control room housed the crew commander and gunner. Option armored personnel could take to the department for the landing 11-13 people.

In the back left side of the body is the engine-transmission compartment. Engine — diesel six-cylinder liquid-cooled power 235.5 kW (D2566MTFG of MAN). The specific capacity of the machine is equal to 12.73 kW / t

Box — 6-speed automatic transmission-type ZF. Suspension —independent.

Movement of the water is provided either by the rotation of the wheels or with 2-propellers, mounted outside the housing behind the wheels of the third axle to the rear. Speed measured at the deepest water — up to 10 km / h (Froude number in displacement — 0,546).

Speed on land — up to 120 km / h 425-liter fuel tank ensured progress in store for 1000 km.

Rheinmetall office Krauss-Maffei, and with the company FMC (USA) In the late 70's and early 80's developed a multi-purpose self-propelled artillery system having a floating 105-millimeter graph gun-howitzer. The base served as the South American amphibious armored M113A1 has bulletproof armor.

The combat weight of the machine — 14 thousand kg. Crew — 7 people. Machine Dimensions: Length — 4863 mm, width — 2686 mm, height — 1828 mm, ground clearance — 432 mm.

Armament cars were 105-mm gun-howitzer (supplied by 45 shots), 12.7-mm machine gun (ammunition at 4,000 rounds).

Detroit Diesel engine firm has a capacity of 221 kW liquid-cooling and turbocharging, fits the specific power of 15.8 kW / t This machine allows us to develop the highest speed — 61 km / h (highway) and 63 km / h (on the water). Movement of the water produced by the rotation of tracks, the upper branch of which was placed in a hydrodynamic housing. Froude number in displacement — 0.36.

In 1973, the Bundeswehr took military intelligence Gators "Lux" with the wheel formula 8×8. Gozha middle of 1978 was over 408 BRM delivery of ordered Bundeswehr. Development of the "Lux" began on a competitive basis in about 1965. It was attended by the company Daimler-Benz, the leading independent development of this machine for those. German Defense Ministry orders, and the combined group of recognizable auto companies (Klöckner-Humboldt-Dyutts, Büssing, MAN, Krupp and Reynshtal-Henschel), formed specifically for the creation of this machine is the total size.

In 1967 he conducted the primary tests of experimental samples. But the favorite of the competition was not revealed. Both cars — and the combined group of companies and Daimler-Benz — Fri met most jobs Defence of Germany. In this regard, both players continued to bring in machinery to improve production implemented in the next 9 experienced swatches. Ministry of Defence of Germany at the end of 1973 made their own choices, and signed a contract with the main contractor of the combined group — the company Reynshtal-Henschel.

First serial standard "Lux", which is made at a factory in the town of Kassel, in September 1975, handed over to the Bundeswehr, Germany.

The features of the general assembly "Lux" were two control position, wheelbase formula 8×8, all-wheel-driven. The main driver-mechanic who ran the machine forward movement, was in the front of her body. Second driver-mechanic, radio operator in combination, was on the second control station aft of the vehicle and is able to move as needed "Lux" in working direction without turning 180 degrees. With all of this car is able to move in both directions at a similar rate.

Because all eight driving wheels driven car, and the car is armed with 2 control stations, it is possible to use a steering in 3 modes: while driving the front swing as managed to use 2-wheel drive front axles, reverse — 2 -uh rear axles. In some cases (the embodiment of maneuver in tight criteria at low speeds, traffic on Myagenko soils, etc.) to configure the direction to use all controlled drive wheels. Turning radius at all it actually decreased by half, and cross on grounds unrelated Myagenko improving. The latter can explain the fact that the machine created by such a motion on the ground only two tracks.

Combat Vehicle Weight — 19.5 thousand kg. The crew — 4 people. Boarding and landing crew is done through hatches in the turret and the hull top. In addition to this goal made a big flap between the wheels of the second and third axes on the left side. Dimensions: Length -7740 mm, width — 2980 mm, height — 2840 mm. Ground clearance — 440 mm.

The highest speed — 90 km / h (highway). The stores range — 800 km.

It is enclosed armored hull protects the crew and equipment from bullets and shrapnel shells and mines. The frontal view of the case provides protection against 20-mm armor-piercing projectiles.

To increase the stealth movement and intelligence activities incarnation machine has infrared and sound masking, significantly reduced the temperature and noise emissions to throw out. The introduction of advanced noise reduction system makes the machine virtually inaudible at a distance of 50 meters.

The main armament of the machine is located in a rotating turret having a radial rotation. It was located on the longitudinal axis of the vehicle specifically for the place of the driver. In the twin tower (located commander and gunner) is set non-stabilized 20-mm automatic gun with bolshennymi elevation angles, which allows you to fire not only on land, and air targets
. Ammunition — 400 rounds. The tower mounted rangefinder and a periscope sights that provide aimed fire and observation, not only in light, and the black-hours a day. In addition, there are 12 units of prism through which the observation hatches closed. 7.62-mm machine gun MG3 was an auxiliary tool and mounted on the commander's hatches. Ammunition of the gun is designed for 2,000 rounds. Along the edges of the outside of the tower installed six smoke grenade launchers (three on each side).

As a reconnaissance vehicle, he has modern radio communications and navigation system.

Power pack compartment is in the middle and is isolated from the interior of the special heat-and sound-insulating walls. To move from the rear of the machine into the nasal passage is on the starboard side. This unit is installed V-shaped 10-cylinder multi-fuel diesel engine Daimler-Benz with a turbocharger. Power on diesel fuel capacity of 287 kW for fuel — 220.8 kW. This power allows the vehicle when working on diesel power density — 14.7 kWh / t, on petrol — 11.3 kW / t The engine is made in one unit with a hydraulic transformer, transmission by other nodes. The main purpose of such installation is to simplify and accelerate the substitution criteria in the field of the block in the car repairs.

Suspension chassis has resilient spring elements with hydraulic shock absorbers. Tire size — 14.00h20.

Centralized control system for tire pressure is connected to all the wheels.

The machine has a higher throughput, capable of overcoming trench width up to 190 cm and a vertical wall up to 80 cm, in addition, the machine is capable of without training to overcome various water obstacles.

Movement of the water provided by two four-bladed propellers. They are located behind the wheels of the fourth axis outside of the tank's hull. Propellers are rotatable about a vertical axis by means of a special electro-actuator. This makes the turning points in the direction of movement, as braking afloat.

The highest speed on the water — 10 km / h Froude number in displacement — 0,545. To avoid flooding the upper front plate retaining the bow wave and the next growth vehicle trim on the top sheet on the nose set volnootrazhayuschy shield, filled hydraulic actuator.

As noted earlier BRM "Lux" series produced from 1975 to 1978. In other countries, "Lux" is not supplied, but were used in the German contingent to IFOR areas of Yugoslavia in NATO and the UN.

Between the year 1979 and mid-1980 began to supply multi-purpose wheeled armored floating TPz "Fyks" 6×6. They were released about 1000.

Development of APC was conducted in 1973 and Porsche together m Daimler-Benz, and for the creation of co-operatives cooperated in Kassel, several companies led by Thyssen-Henschel. On the technological base of the armored personnel carriers were planning to do seven other modifications: Engineering intelligence, command and staff, for chemical and radiation reconnaissance for electronic warfare, for health service and others.

At the base, there are three armored personnel department. Department of Management, in which the place of the driver is to the left, the commander of the landing seat (driver's assistant) — on the right. The separation of a Stand-Alone engine management department, which is made to the right of passage in the troop compartment from the driver's compartment formed for the engine compartment and aft hull. In the troop compartment facing the board and back each other up on the seats is 10 paratroopers. In the rear hull plates for landing and landing troops made double door 1250h1340 mm dimensions. For boarding and landing troops can be used two flap placed on the roof of the office for the landing.

Gross weight armored vehicle — 16 thousand kg. Curb weight — 13.8 thousand kg. Load capacity — 2.2 thousand kg. Dimensions: Length — 6830 mm, width — 2980 mm, height of the roof — 2300 mm. Ground clearance under the body — 505 mm, under the axle housing — 445mm.

Welded housing made of metal armor and provides protection against 7.62-millimeter bullets from all sides. Front-body is able to protect a distance of 300 meters of 12.7 mm bullets. Protective glass cockpit — bulletproof, can be protected by an armored cover.

Armament: 7.62 millimitrovy machine gun and six smoke grenade launchers are located on the left side of the hull. On some machines installed 20-mm automatic cannon.

In the engine compartment is a diesel V-shaped 8-cylinder engine OM 402 A turbocharged, liquid-cooling and servicing the systems of Mercedes-Benz. Power — 235 kW, rotational speed — 2500 rev / min. Specific power armored equivalent of 14.72 kWh / t Motor assembled in one unit with a 6-Speed Automatic 6 NR500.

Drive axles are dependent suspension. The wheels 2, two front axles. Tire size — 14.00h20. Turning diameter — 17 meters (on land). Short-term maximum speed — 105 km / h (highway), low operating speed — 4 km / h, maximum — 90 km / h The stores range — 800 km.

Movement of the water is provided by two 480 millimeter propellers are installed behind the wheels of the third axis outside of the case. Propellers rotate 360 degrees independently of the rotation of the steered wheels with electro-hydraulic control afloat.

To remove the body of seawater has three sump pump, which is the total supply of 540 liters. per minute. On land used for water drainage located on the bottom of the hull valve three-Kingston.

The highest speed — 10 km / h measured at the deepest water. Froude number in displacement — 0.56.

In the development of modified armored "Fuchs" intensively involved South American experts at various companies. In 1988, for example, the American company General Dynamics and the company Thyssen-Henschel developed a version of the machine, "Fuchs" for reconnaissance after the use of weapons of mass destruction. It was assumed that if the tests of the vehicle will be successful, the United States Army will acquire approximately 400 units. In 1989, some of these cars were comparative tests in the United States at different sites.

In connection with the preparation of the United States and Great Britain of military operations in the Persian Gulf country's rented 70 cars "Fuchs". In a very short time on the machines installed special equipment, because they feared the introduction of chemical weapons by the Iraqi army. In the U.S. Army beginning in 1993 to field test passed the first group of specialized vehicles HM93 "Fuchs" NBC. Installed on their special equipment, virtually all were American. In the middle of the equipment: chemical reconnaissance sensors, weather sensors, mass spectrometers and other sensors were installed in the middle of the chassis to pull the mast. At the rear of the car to install equipment for sampling soil.

Based on the BTR Tpz-1 "Fuchs" and other armored wheeled vehicles, Mercedes-Benz offices and CG started to order the Bundeswehr in 1978, work on the creation of armored amphibious vehicles Egypt (Amphibische Pionier-erkundungs — Kfz-APE), set up to engineer intelligence, including aqua-bottlenecking. This machine is different from the basic armored vehicle, first, wheel formula 4×4 instead of 6×6 and kit placed in the special housing. Repair.

Gross vehicle weight battle — 14,5 million kg. Dimensions: Length — 6930 mm, width — 3080 mm, height — 2400 mm. Crew — 4 people.

235.5 kW diesel engine giving the car a higher specific power (16.0 kW / t) increases its mobility in the area and permeability. The increase in cross-machine also promote large-tubeless tires 20.5 x25. In addition, all tires are connected to the centralized system of regula
tion of air pressure. Machine capable of climbing up to 35 degrees, the vertical wall height up to 50 cm, a width of ditches and trenches to 1 m Maximum speed on the track — 80 km per hour with all this in store on the progress of the combustible is 800 km.

Armament machine — 20-mm automatic gun, which is mounted on the roof completely closed a displacement hull. For the production of body armor steel sheets are used, which provide bulletproof protection equipment and crew. The machine is equipped with special equipment that allows you to determine the depth, width and speed of the current aquatic areas as steep river banks and properties of ground surface of the river beds. In addition, this equipment allows us to produce topographic binding Kfz-APE on the ground. The machine equipped with modern means of communication, fire alarm system, filter installation, several smoke grenades, placed on the sides of the outside of his body, and a sump pump, sea water was removed.

Most water speed — 12 km / h (Froude number in displacement — 0.68) is ensured by two propellers with four-pivoting with the energy laden with equal 892 kW/m2, which are also used to control afloat with controlled front wheels.

First 1990 by Thyssen-Henschel has been designed and prepared by serial production of 4×4 wheeled amphibious armored "Condor", which is intended, first, to import into the country of South America, Malaysia and others. The design of this machine is applied a lot of components and assemblies, "Unimog" — the highest terrain vehicle.

Bearing displacement hull is made of armored vehicle rolled sheets, protects over distances of more than 500 meters from a 12.7-mm bullets, also from the small mine and shell splinters. As required inside the body created by a small excess air pressure, along with a filtering system provides protection from bacteriological and chemical weapons.

In the middle of the roof of the housing mounted single spinning tower, curb 20-mm automatic gun (200 rounds) and 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun (500 rounds ammunition). With each side has 4 smoke grenade.

Stern and middle part of the body and takes the troop compartment. For boarding and landing troops used transom door. Place the driver is in an armored cab, which projects from the top of the hull on the port side forward. In front of the cabin and on the sides there are windows that are locked armor covers as needed. In the cabin roof hatch there. For a sealed bulkhead to the right of the driver is the engine-transmission unit. It is set 124 kW diesel 6-cylinder engine is liquid cooled Daimler-Benz, its systems, as some units of a manual. Wheel suspension dependent, the axis of the front wheels — controlled.

Crew — 2 people. Team — 10 people. Machine weight — 12.4 thousand kg. Dimensions: Length — 6500 mm, width — 2470 mm, height — 2080 mm. Ground clearance — 480 mm. The highest speed: 105 km / h (highway), 10 km / hour (water). Travel on the roads in store for combustible — 900 km.

In Germany, as in other countries, not counting the languid, medium and light amphibious vehicles designed and tested compact amphibious carriers for the transport of small consignments of different purposes and types in a wide range of motion criterion. These machines were used in the main to the ground surface with a relatively low coupling and load-bearing characteristics.

From this group of machines as an example to give you three amphibious compact conveyor — Solo 750, Chico and Allmobil Max 11. Allmobil Max 11 was developed in conjunction with the United States.

For this type of transporters characterized the open carrying case made of reinforced plastic, aggressively associated with the body non-rotating wheels, lightweight design chassis and transmissions.

Amphibious transporter Solo 750 (wheel formula 6×6) in displacement has a supporting body made of fiber reinforced plastic composite. Wall thickness — 5 mm. In a loaded field wall reinforced with metal inserts.

Curb weight Solo 750 — to 220 kilograms, load capacity — 230 kg, gross weight — 450 pounds. Dimensions: Length — 2130 mm Width — 1420 mm Height — 960 mm (without canopy).

The installation of 15.2 kW 2-stroke 2-cylinder diesel engine or a 2-cylinder internal combustion engine with a power of 18.4 kW opposed cylinders (rotational speed of 6000 rev / min). Specific power when using the internal combustion engine is 40.88 kWh / t

The motor torque is transmitted to the secondary wheel, then the chain gears on the rear and front wheels. Box (reverse, infinitely variable) can move at the speed — 60 km per hour. Progress in store for combustible — 120 km.

Change of direction is performed by braking the wheels of the 1st side. Management produced by special levers. With all this double differential with 2 controlled friction elements enables infinitely variable turning radius, but is not reached steady rectilinear movement on unpaved surfaces having different resistance to movement along the sides.

Band brakes are also controlled by levers. When you press the foot pedal front wheels braked, the other wheels — a chain of transmission.

When the wheels rigidly attached to the body smooth ride is ensured thanks to the wide-tubeless tires of low pressure. Specific pressure wheels on the ground — up to 35 kPa.

Water speed achieves 5 km per hour. Movement by rotating wheels. With all of this Froude number in displacement — 0.5. When installing the outboard motor boat traffic speeds measured deepest water increases up to 9 km / h, the Froude number at all on the increase is 0.91.

Another amphibious compact conveyor Chico was the least successful model, as had wheel formula 4×2, full weight of 2,400 kg and 1,000 kg load capacity. Dimensions: Length — 3750 mm, width — 1620 mm, height — 1850 mm. The conveyor has a manual. As with the other models are navigable propelled wheels. By land, the maximum speed is 65 km / h With all this speed on the water is not very large, because the thrust is generated only 2 wheels.

Transporter Allmobil Max 11 was designed as amphibious ton for official and personal use. This machine developed by the German company Allmobil together with the American company Recreatives Industries Ing. In 1966 he began creating small-scale.

Axels transporter — 6×6, gross weight — 600 kg, load capacity — 350 kg. Dimensions: Length — 2320 mm, width — 1400 mm, height — 800 mm, ground clearance — 150 mm gauge — 1400 mm. Motor power, located the body of the passenger and driver's seats in the rear part — 13.3 kW or 18.4 kW. Specific power conveyor 22.2 or 30.7 kWh / t, respectively. The engine provides the highest speed up to 50 km / h

The carrier body of the machine is made of plastic. In areas subject to high loads strengthened. The all-wheel transporter kitted wide tires low pressure aggressively attached to the body. Specific pressure wheels on the ground — from 20 to 30 kPa. The car has a CVT with all-wheel chain drive. In addition, the probable installation of a box with a centrifugal clutch and 5-speed manual.

Band brakes lever-operated brake is used for configuration or direction of movement on the water and on land at the expense of a full stop or braking the wheels of the 1st bead machine.

The movement on the water provide all-wheel drive, with all this, the maximum speed is 5 km / h (Froude number in displacement — 0.48).

The conveyor can have two or four seats. The kit includes electrical equipment Allmobil Max 11 required lighting and signaling devices that provide the status of the car road rc.

In 1982, the Hanover Air Show for the first time was presented to the floating truck EWK Bizon, designed for use in a variety of civilian areas. Two-axle vehicle wheel formula — 4×4, control cabin for 2-3 people.

eight of the car — 11 thousand kg weight with load — 16 thousand kg. Load capacity on the water and on land — 5 thousand kg, but in some cases may increase to 7 million kg. Dimensions: Length — 9340 mm, width — 2480 mm, height — 2960 mm (for cab) and 3400 mm (tent). Power density — 14.7 kW / t The highest speed — 80 km / h Progress in store for combustible 900 km.

V-shaped, 8-cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine, whose power is 235.5 kW, arranged for the control cabin on the front axle. Loading platform is located behind the engine compartment. The cab doors and folding side platform placed above the waterline.

The movement on the water provides work 2-full-circle screws that are installed in the rear part. The configuration of the provisions of the propeller relative to the longitudinal axis of the amphibious cargo vehicles provided not bad management afloat, but with all this, there is some decrease in the velocity of circulation on. To lower the resistance of the water in which increases water speed, the car has a wheel lift system. With all this the greatest speed — 12 km / h and in store range — 80 km. Froude number in displacement — 0.67.

Bizon made on the basis of option ALF-2. In its cargo bed has two hydrants and accessories. The water supply hydrants — 4000 liters. per minute. The total mass of ALF-2 — 17 thousand kg.

At about the same time have developed other transport floating car — Amphitruck AT-400 was created for offshore unloading ships. This car outside looks like a Bizon. Loading platform allows you to have a 20-ton containers with dimensions 6000x2400x2400 see Vehicle Dimensions allow his transfer of air or train travel.

Wheel formula — 4×4. Mass of the vehicle with a load — 43 thousand kilograms.

Power of the diesel engine is 300 kW (specific power — 6.98 kW / ton) can achieve the speed of 40 km / h (highway). Progress in store for combustible — 300 km.

Overall dimensions: length — 12700 mm, width — 3500 mm, height of cab — 4000 mm. Cargo space dimensions: width — 2500 mm, length — 6300 mm.

The all-wheel-driven car.

The highest rate of traffic on the deepest measured water does not exceed 10 km per hour, the Froude number in displacement with all this (or relative velocity) is 0.475. Turn on the water in store for combustible up to 80 km.

In true article contains descriptions are not all amphibious vehicles being designed in the XX century in Germany. But the main approaches to the creation of similar machines and made those. properties considered. Together with the fact these materials demonstrate that the German design office and factory companies in the last century managed to accumulate quite a lot of experience on the creation of various purpose and design of amphibious tracked and wheeled vehicles, those. properties are improved.

According to the article "Amphibious vehicles in Germany," Alexei Stepanov, the magazine "Arms and equipment yesterday, today and tomorrow …", 2002

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