History of Russian troops Zhodino begins August 6, 1851 That's when Nicholas I approved the "Regulations on the management by the St. Petersburg-Moscow railways", according to which for its protection and maintenance had to be formed 14 separate military-workers, and two conductor's "telegraphic" company.
In modern conditions Zhodino Troops produce technical cover, recovery and boom of railways in order to combat and mobilization activities of the different arms of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. In addition to their assigned functions of construction (both in war and in peace time) of new routes and increase survivability and throughput capabilities of existing railways, and performing tasks in accordance with the international treaties of the Russian Federation.
Separately, it is worth mentioning bridge Even ordinary small bridge constructed — the problem. A military build railroad bridges, on which are later compositions. And the construction of these bridges are allocated to them years and almost a few hours, for this is the special machine for pile driving, while there are floating, which work even in the middle of the river.
And if you need to fight off a raid on the highway terrorists or saboteurs, and there are cootvetstvuyuschaya appliances, special units and all necessary. Military railroad can lead techno exploration and mine clearance. That's why they are always among the first to arrive on the scene of an accident and accidents on the railway transport. Only in summer 2005, they brought three times to eliminate the effects of technological and other disasters on the territory of Russia. This train tragedy in the Tver region, Krasnodar Krai, and the explosion of a passenger train from Moscow to Grozny.
Soldiers are fire an AK body of "Ural", the equipped w / d rinks, with fighter cover only the sides of the loading platform. It is seen as the later fighters desantiruyutsya right on the rails and sleepers from a height of 1.8 meters. At the forefront of this battle group is a UAZ vehicle kitted railway guide rollers. But there is no protection.
An analysis of these materials makes it possible to assert that the standards shown may not fully comply with the technology, which is necessary for fighting against terrorists on the steel road, first because of the lack of small guns, not inferior to the power of arming potential enemy and the corresponding protection. Along with that equipment that meets the necessary requirements, has been in service with w / d, and the troops could be in the present and future.
TC, which combine the ability to move by road, off-road and w / d paths in the scientific literature has been called "the machine on a combined course." Completely natural that a lot of attention has been paid specifically to such cars in Russia.
In the Russian Empire, and later absorbed into the Soviet Union area, usually with the help of railways: cheap construction, and transportation. At the cost of giant effort (BAM, Transsiberian) railroad workers were able to cover the country with a network of highways from east to west, from Vladivostok to Kaliningrad and from the south to the north of Kushka to Murmansk and Salekhard. Construction of roads with hard surface came in the second place with a significant delay. So, for example, the Far East still has no reliable roads to communicate with the central regions of the country.
These incidents have prompted designers to think about the creation of the vehicle, which will be capable on motorways, cross-country (off-road) and w / d paths. In particular, in dire need of these vehicles have experienced Zhodino troops. It is worth noting that in the USSR in the pre-war and war periods there were standards ton capable to move by road and rail / d paths. All standards are established on the basis of armored vehicles that the Red Army for mass-produced. The main feature of these armored vehicles was that the size of the wheelbase was commensurate with w / d track. This simplifies the development of devices for the movement of armored cars on the railway track.
Thus, armored vehicles, railway FAI were large bandages flanged-mounted wheels for 30 minutes by the crew. The same amount of time required to machine the crew of the BA-6zhd, BA-10zhd, BA-20zhd, 20Mzhd BA-BA-64B and to substitute for regular tire iron wheels (wheels) with flanges. On the BA-10zhd had hydraulic lift used to move from ordinary to w / e the course and back.
Serial production of armored vehicles rolled in 1946, soon after the end of World War II. According to replace the machines came BTR-40 and BTR-152 different over-cross, the ability to transport infantry, equipped by light armor protects against shrapnel and small arms fire guns. But the database is not created armored modifications with provision w / a stroke.
The situation has changed dramatically in the late 1960s due to the worsening of relations between China and the Russian Union. During the non-long time in the border areas have made the military infrastructure. In the conditions of weak little or no development of the road network in the region focuses on the introduction of the railway tracks. But their defense was not an easy task. In the sparsely populated taiga or steppe with rare towns and stations were vulnerable not only open train Stretches, and an unlimited number of sidings, tunnels and overpasses. For the protection, exploration, critical transfer repair crews and infantry needed an effective and mobile.
It was decided to use the main produce of the war, tested in 1943 at the Experimental swatch BA-64G running device for train travel. For the creation of the modern car on a combined basis for the move took a BTR-40. One of the main reasons for choosing this machine as the base was that the wheel track the car was close to the size of the railway track. It is possible to use wheels of the car as drivers while driving car on w / e rails. With all the speed of the car on the railroad could reach 80 km / h Front and rear of the vehicle had folding frame kitted coil springs and iron frames, rollers arranged in pairs. Rollers had internal flange. When pressed to the rails they prevented the APC rally with w / d path. To exit from the track, it was necessary to raise the rollers. In place of the course took 3 to 5 mine. Experienced reference was made and tested in 1969. The machine was produced commercially under the designation BTR-40ZHD.
At the same time it was decided to build four armored train for Trans-Baikal Military neighborhood. The structure of each armored reconnaissance company came with eight BTR-40ZHD. To transport these machines in the armored train had four ordinary w / e platform, which was loaded on a pair of APC-40ZHD.
In the early 90-ies of these machines were on duty in the Far East Russia. In 2003, 15 BTR-40ZHD to repair the operating condition was at the location 38 of the Research Testing Institute of the Defense Ministry.
Do we need such machines now?
It turns out well, and not only for military purposes.
The creator posted an article in 1997 in Moscow open a discussion of these problems with the spices of Scientific Committee w / d troops. It was a time of "local conflicts" that swept the
country of Russia. Then it wound about the difficulties faced by the military railroad maintenance crews and losses in the middle of the personnel. After diversions for repair w / d in the main pathways used GAZ-66, which did not protect the awning from the fire of terrorists. In addition, on the cars did not have guns to repel the attackers.
Railway engineers have demonstrated their production in the creation of a ton w / a course on the basis of all-wheel drive car with the wheel formula 6×6, but it did not suit them. The machine, shown Aug. 6, 2005, was apparently the end of the development started in the mid 90's. The emergence of this standard confirms the need for a vehicle on a combined move with increased load capacity, size and weight.
With all of this was found out, that established earlier designs have exhausted themselves. Saving track car wheels close to the railway, in the case of mass growth machine did not provide lateral stability while cornering on highways. Required a different approach. An example of a successful solution of the tasks was made in 1996 to develop the design department of the Gorky Automobile Plant machinery, led by AG Masyagina.
The customer has UGZHD (management Gorky the railroad), headed at the time O.Kh. Sharadze. On the part of UGZHD scientific and technical support for the project was made physician Engineering ZM Slavinsky. Management hopes pinned with the latest machinery to meet the challenges that are typical of electrified w / d highways. Highest Voltage, severe weather conditions, the wear of electrical equipment are the reasons for the highest probability of occurrence of defects in the electrical outlet. These faults difficult to predict, and their consequences often lead to stopping of trains. Track Vehicles carrying maintenance crews, directed after stopping composition may not always get to the place of occurrence of the tragedy. It was necessary to mc, having a combined course, which would be able to get to the scene of the tragedy and bring back the equipment for repair of electric railway.
Specialists UGZHD together with the designers of GAZ, analyzed the situation, and decided that for the creation of the machine as the database is more suitable BTR-80 which at 80 was developed by the gas.
BTR-80 meets the requirements of a very cross and has the highest rate. Flexible development of production of these armored vehicles can adapt it to accommodate the body repairmen, and the right equipment. Wide track BTR-80 eliminates the possibility of tipping while driving on the highway. But to install it on w / e path and walking it needed additional drive. Designers have proposed two solutions to this tasks: self-drive rollers or drive train rolls on the wheels.
Prototyping and engaged in the creation of the upcoming serial Arzamas Machine-Building Plant, which at the time was headed by VI Tyurin. Technical support was made by AD Mintyukovym.
To check both drive variant, it was decided to make two experienced reference. At the initial step were applied unsold housing military vehicles based on the BTR-80. They cut out the holes for the windows and the roof installed the lift tower, projected spices Samara repair and trolleybus plant. The tower was the site for 2-5 people and was able to rise to the height of the repair power grids.
Wheel formula 4×4
Combat weight, kg 5800
Width, mm 1900
Height, mm 2230
Ground clearance, mm 276
The highest speed, km / h on Highway 78 by rail 50
Overcoming obstacles: the angle of elevation of 30 ° tilt 25 °
width of the trench, 0.75 m
Fording depth, 0.9 m
Crew (troops), pers. 2 (8)
Independent drive of the first prototype reference implemented by the installation of the hydrostatic transmission. This solution is offered to experts at NATI (Moscow). Hydraulic pump located in the department of power transmission and the drive from the transfer case, which in the absence of jet selection was capable of passing through the power from the engine. Hydraulic pump with pipes, connectors on the back wall of the housing, and the flexible hose was connected to the hydraulic motor, located at the rear, on the outside of the housing flange pinion gear, a converted armored personnel carriers from the bridge. Guided half-gear were connected with the bearing w / d rinks.
This version of the drive has a number of advantages. When driving on the w / e path is not spinning car wheels. This reduced the loss of power and the quality of the tread and tire wear does not affect the process of creating thrust. But have been identified and significant flaws. Only the rear rollers have been leading. This reduced the traction car (there is a theoretical possibility of installation in front of the second motor unnecessarily complicates the design). Wiring outside of the machine hoses highest pressure (about 400 kgf/cm2) could be a precursor of damage while moving over rough terrain. In addition, pilot swatch were not able to resolve the issue of creation of the braking system of the highest efficiency.
In time the creation of the most experienced benchmark-driven car wheels GAZ designers examined all known standards with the same drive. For all this they drew attention to the fact that the previous car had the wrong direction of rotation of the direction of rotation of car wheels w / d rinks and, as it follows the direction of motion tf. This discrepancy may be a precursor of the tragedy at the time of gathering the car off the tracks. The process approach also significantly complicated by the rails. On machines with such drive progress was made on the reverse gear. This made it difficult acceleration and significantly limited the speed of movement. In addition, there was no cushioning w / d rinks, which you need for a comfortable and non-hazardous driving while driving on the railway tracks at speeds up to 100 km / h In addition, the previously developed system would necessarily involve the fixing of nodes w / d rinks in the drive position on the rails (hydraulic shut-off device or mechanical stops).
The development of the unique design of the chassis, which provided the possibility of movement by car w / d way involved YS Prokhorov and IB By V. Kopylov S.Mescheryakova.
The device works like this. To transmit the rotation rollers used cars wheels back and front axles with large-brand tires KI-126. Developed lugs tires CI-126 provides higher speed and a good cross on the road with a hard cover and soft soil.
When driving on the roads back and front frame pressed to the frame of the car and locked. With all of this all the structural elements that are necessary for moving on w / e rails, do not aggravate the terrain vehicles, as are above ground clearance.
Speed train system: 1 — auto pnevmokolesa 2 — front and rear frame, 3 — cylinders, 4 — fingers, 5 — axis, 6 — Train Rollers, 7 — roll
ers, 8 — drive gears of the planetary gear units, 9 — driven gears, 10 — led 11 — rubber bushings, 12 — pin, 13 — rocker, 14 — torsion bars, 15 — Stops
During the setting for Train the way the car drives onto it so Makarov, that pnevmokolesa placed with a similar gap on either side of the rails. After that, the frame cylinders are discharged down pivoting on your toes and push against rollers in rails, lifting ton of them. With all this driving rollers are pressed against the pnevmokolesam. The outer surface of the rollers has a trapezoidal longitudinal grooves.
The trajectory of moving rollers by turning the frame crosses the vertical plane which passes through the axis of the fingers. So Makar, frames are clamped to the stops reaction force R on the rinks of the mass mc. This locks the frame in the desired position for movement with respect to x / a rail design without introducing additional locking parts. With all of this hydraulic cylinders are not subject to stresses that are associated with the movement of the rails. Constant pnevmokolesam pressing force to the drive rollers is provided by the fact that the axes of the drive rollers, and pnevmokoles pins are coplanar. Pnevmokolesa when driving on the w / e rails are placed at a height of 10 cm from the upper level of the rails. This ensures the smooth passage of the vehicle gunner and relocations.
Movement for w / e way at the expense of pnevmokoles ts, which transmit rotation to the drive rollers and the rollers on for a planetary gear. The direction of rotation of rollers and pnevmokoles with all this monotonous. Braking produces braking system of the machine through pnevmokolesa. When driving rocker in which the axis of fixed rollers (through rubber bushings) can swing on the trunnion, twisting the torsion bars. So Makarov is provided by cushioning the vehicle while driving on the tracks. In addition, the rubber bushings reduce vibration loads.
When removing a ton w / e the way the fingers are rotated frame with hydraulic cylinders and locked in the upper position of the latter. With all of this machine is lowered and becomes at pnevmokolesa.
This option has permitted to reduce the transit time from the 1st option to turn the other to 2 minutes.
Tests were conducted in both samples of different weather criteria. Speed train system was tested in the Nizhny Novgorod region on the landfill area Zhodino troops where there were parts of the route, which by its characteristics (turning radius, debris, lift angle, etc.) are extreme. All obstacles both machines successfully overcame.
Second reference to a straight horizontal section reached a speed of 100 km / h But, given the current limitations, it was recommended to exploit the data of car at less than 50 km / h
Although both standard withstood the tests, it was decided to begin mass creation of a second variant: it had more than a cheap and ordinary design the best possible traction and dynamic performance, reliable braking system. There were no tire wear and impact on the properties of the machine.
Unfortunately, the step test, disaster struck. Because of the absurd randomness languid injury (which led to the death of the upcoming) won N. Maltsev, a leading test engineer, very responsible, thoughtful and competent special, spiritual and intelligent man, who was able to make very many good and necessary things.
For mass production for the base took the body floating car-bus has comfortable indoor lounge, a ventilation system, comfortable to enter the door, inflated the glass area. The car was designated GAZ-59401, retrofit radio station, which is applied to the steel road, as a special warning lights.
During testing it was found that machine can be used as a tractor for shunting wagons. Because on serial swatches were mounted device for connection to standard couplers g / l composition.
On the appearance of the machine on a combined course was granted a patent of the Russian Federation on the industry standard.
Gorky's railways in 1997 — 1998 years ordered 15 GAZ-59401, which were distributed to virtually all territorial offices of Russian railways.
Unfortunately, the plant is not able to make regular contact with the organizations operating these machines. Information about their operation there. But this fact has its positive side. Parts orders almost was not, and this means that all of the systems, and the system first train travel, work perfectly. Naturally, 15 machines for the "AMP", which has a significant industrial potential, a huge amount can not be considered. But while the economic problems, the lack of state order and a relatively small number of machines has helped the plant and its workers to survive.
But the area is the introduction of machines with a combined stroke could be more extensive.
Subsequent entity, is interested Gorky metal road was a fire truck on the combined run. The set of this machine was to powder fire extinguishing equipment developed in the St. Petersburg Institute of fire fighting equipment under the control of GN Kuprina. This equipment has been called "Snowstorm".
Depending on the performance of the foam device "Blizzards" comes a number of plants. It can be installed on different carriers, including the VAZ-2121 "Niva".
In these installations the water under pressure, which makes the pump is mixed with a watery fire extinguishing agent is supplied to the nozzle and arranged inside the barrel. A mixture of the expansion in the trunks of flakes form of matter, throw out to a distance of 55 meters.
Specifically for the fire engine has a combined course designed tower plant with 4 barrels arranged in a horizontal line. With the help of a mechanism aiming at once podymali all trunks in a vertical plane. Move the barrels in the horizontal plane is performed by turning the entire system. The operator, which is located inside the plant to monitor the terrain there was a window, placed between pairs of trunks.
Tower plant with the "blizzard" was developed by VB Kuklin and BN Brovkin.
Pump that provides water from the pond or tank, went into the hardware of the machine. There were a sleeve-pipes, which allow withdrawals at a distance of 50 meters from the water body. Inside the car were the reagent tank and space for five members of the fire brigade.
Experienced standard car, which was designated GAZ-59402, produced a lot of time fighting and demonstrations shown at exhibitions.
The design of the machine had the following characteristics:
— wheel formula 8×8;
— centralized system adjust the tire pressure;
— -independent torsion suspension of wheels;
— Hydraulic suspension;
— differentials bridges overvalued friction;
— thermal insulation, heating and ventilation systems;
— System w / d turn controlled from the cockpit;
— filter system;
— self-recovery winch;
— protected sealed housing that allows you to draw near to the site of a fire at a distance of 50 meters and extinguish combustible objects;
— rotating tower plant, equipment system combined extinguishing fires (water plus fire extinguishing agent) "Snowstorm";
— Mon-40UA pump which is driven by the box car.
In addition, the experts at UGZHD worked for the service of your machine w / e way. It was assumed that this
To all of the unique solutions that provide a combined stroke, received more extensive spread could advise the subsequent.
1. Apart from active sales of mass-produced cars based on the BTR-80, it was necessary to carry out elaborate use as a base chassis of other cars of the highest terrain. For example, the holding company "Ruspromavto" apart of "Arzamas Machine-Building Plant" and OAO "GAZ" comes of "automobile plant" Ural ". "Ural" proven themselves on the roads and highways of. They were used transport service Zhodino troops. Despite the fact that the military engineers was offered his own version of equipping "Ural" system w / a stroke unit from the "GAS", which has been tested based on the BTR-80, will also have advantages when installed in cars "Ural". Criterion for civilian use as a fundamentally that these machines will not exceed the width of 2500 mm, which corresponds to the safety requirements avtodvizheniya. Perhaps the price of these vehicles will be substantially less than the GAZ-59402 and GAZ-59401.
2. For machines with a combined stroke made on the basis of the BTR-80 is seen a few different future. Railway Troops of Russia at the present time do not have their own war machine. Because the development of "GAZ" would have to be very handy. Because of the entire family of armored personnel carriers, made by the designers of the plant, it was possible to make a car that is more responsive to the needs of Zhodino troops.
Apparently, you need a car on a combined course, which has a set of equipment for the implementation of repair works at the railway / rail tracks, crane installation, welding equipment, comfortable conditions for the maintenance crew, the owner of the protection and the ability to repel the attack. In this case, could be applied serial armored ARV-K, retrofit system train travel. It would be possible to eliminate all the defects that appear when using a civilian vehicle as a base.
The designers of "GAZ" many times appealed to the management of w / d troops with suggestions to make the car on the combined run. These appeals, unfortunately, were not answered. But since the question of equipping the Russian Armed Forces technique that has advanced and innovative features and capabilities, now a burning, enthusiastic professionals to work together and control w / d of troops on one side and the designers and manufacturers of military equipment from another rise in recent times.