Military stare the emergence of new technologies, namely, the emergence of advanced batteries, micro-generators, fuel parts, solar energy sources, superkondesatorov that are designed for energy storage.
Full set of combat fighter weighs a lot, but the fighting tasks involve in the current time and wearing a huge number of new electric devices. The use of more efficient equipment and technologies intelligent power management to a large extent would facilitate the mass of this equipment. Because there was the need to search and research of new technological developments. In turn, more advanced military modernization program notes, occupies a central place to develop and energy management.
Standardization processes and integration into NATO is very complex, so there is not a single NATO standard connectors or voltage supply systems activities fighter. Because usually, developers direct its main efforts on the development of distributed and centralized systems of energy savings.
A distributed system is characterized by the fact that any single piece of equipment of its armed battery, and communication with other parts are only for data transmission. Centralized system characterized by the fact that the set akkumy that it comes integrated in Knapsack power system and is integral with the individual electronics.
Due to the centralized system can be load reduction per person, as the amount of logistics operations, which can be obtained from the use of battery instead of just one rechargeable unit, which is the source of energy for the equipment. To embed them to be effective, it is necessary that all devices have a monotonous strain, or had their own system of regulation of power or a power control unit. Implement centralized energoskhem more suitable for use in modern developments, namely the electric tissues and flat cabling.
Consumer of electricity in the current time is also a small cannon. It’s no longer a new optical sights, laser pointers, the illumination device, image intensifiers and thermal imagers. Many soldiers do not exclude the ability to upgrade and revision of weapons through integrated means of data transmission and power supply. For example, the program of modernization of the soldier outfit Australia LAND 125 includes a sophisticated rifle Steyr F88, curb battery pack that provides power to additional devices.
ISSE DE & S (Department of Defense integrated soldier system of England) and by ABSL Power Systems jointly developed lightweight battery for radio spectrum ultrashort BOWMAN, which have a longer lifetime. Batteries based on the combination of lithium-carbon monofluoride, soon finding increasing application.
In chemical reactions of batteries used oxygen, resulting in generating electricity. Lead-acid batteries, for example, oxygen is produced through the electrolyte with sulfuric acid. In lithium-air batteries oxygen comes from the atmosphere, thereby decreases the mass of the battery. In theory, lithium-air batteries are making huge energy density of 1000 W / h per 1 kg of the element, but in practice such type of battery is not yet achieve this density. Additionally, such batteries are not able to give the highest output, and in practice rechargeable models are not yet implemented. Besides, there are certain prepyadstviya operation life and safety, so as lithium is highly reactive substance and can explode or ignite when injuries or imprudently appeal.
British MoD currently being carried programm RBDS, which has its own purpose of lowering the load on the fighter to 25 kg. At its base are put development of individual saving energy and electrical systems. The end result should be the creation of energy embedded architecture and electrical systems, which will rely on the main power source having an energy density of about 600-800 W / h per kilogram. First models were made in 2011, and working standards may seem a couple of years.
The program provides for the consideration of RBDS implementation of different concepts with the aim to achieve a stepped configuration energy density power sources.
I must say that scientists and industry groups to conduct research different technologies, namely, software agents that are capable of making mental control energy saving, as fuel cells, chemical promising formulations fotogalvanisticheskie arrays, energy storage, electric tissue and micromotors.
For example, in one program, MO England conducted a study of biomechanical energy storage, which is that the movement of the body used for energy release, which is used for the operation of the individual radio station. Study «Solar Soldier» investigates multilevel photovoltaic device that supplies power to devices. Besides, there is another direction of research, which focused on the development of rapidly deployable printed antennas that can be worn on the body and using them to accumulate radio frequency energy. The need for high capacity in certain rather short period compels attention given to promising supercapacitors.
A huge amount of research on advanced batteries focused on the use of lithium-air systems, which we mentioned above. Given that the application of practical lithium-air systems irrationally, in the last couple of years, the world has new batteries with lithium-ion composition. They are non-hazardous lithium battery zhelezofosfatnye who possess the highest peak power and maximum energy density. Middle of the manufacturers of such batteries is dominated by American company A123 Sustems and Canadian Phostech Lithium. Feature of the new batteries is that they possess a greater energoplotnostyu because when reloading fail to provide a reduction of logistical problems.
There is another trend in the development akkumy, which is the confluence of 2-technologies — capacitor and battery. Condenser — a pair of conductors, insulators are broken. Between these conductors accumulates potential difference which is an electronic static charge. When the positive and negative terminals are connected, the capacitor is discharged. Capacitance is measured in farads, but soon appeared multifaradnye capacitors that contain large electronic charge in a small volume can be rapidly discharged and recharged. Their drawback is the inability to hold a charge for a long time. Thanks to such features supercapacitors can supplement batteries in cases where the highest need impulsive power on a small time gap.
Implementation of energy as a whole is very fundamentally, regardless of the type of power architecture. To this day, men have learned to be more appropriate to use the energy, driving power by turning on and off the equipment. Together with that, automatic control system will enable to extend battery life and reduce the level of workload.
In particular fundamentally efficient power management for soldier in a combat situation. For example, in Afghanistan, Marines and signalers who spend two-night patrols over rugged terrain, can carry up to 11 pounds of batteries. With all this in fact half of the mass akkumy used for protection, while the radio is used to meter only 39 percent. Another 22 percent are divided between universal battery, radio frequency, commercial elements.
In order to reduce the weight of the BATTERY, commissioned by the British military ABSL Power Systems Ltd created a new device that is able to extract energy from the residue of non-rechargeable batteries shrunken. Device, the name which the SPC, except extracting energy from the batteries, can do the same thing with other likely sources of energy. This device can be connected to the BATTERY mc and send the right amount of energy to recharge your device. In addition, the device can be connected to the solar panel, then it will turn into a battery charger.
On the battlefield has long been used portable generators, internal combustion engines kitted small sizes. Such generators are economical and reliable, but they are hard to endure because of the rather big weight. It was a prerequisite that scientists and industry engaged in the development of small or even micro-generator. First type of device are very close to the engine drone, and may soon appear on the market. As regards the second type, then this microelectromechanical system, which are made with the introduction of technologies for semiconductors.
Thus, by developing Cubewano conducted aimed at creating a device which, when a small weight (about 10 kg) would have an output power of 2 kW. Such a device could provide energy to a group of 8-12 soldier for 72 hours. Rotary engines Sonic from this company use spark ignition, and can run on various fuels.
As for internal combustion engines MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), then it has conducted research aimed at addressing issues of sealing, carburetion, lubrication, ignition, diagnostics engine, heat management and build additional systems.
Rotary engines MEMS, developed at the Institute of Berkeley, able to produce about 26 milliwatts of power. The same programm exists in Cambridge Institute. In addition, Berkeley has also held development minirotornogo motor that would be able to produce 10-100 watts. These engines could come to replace the BATTERY.
With regard to fuel generators, they have long been in the spotlight of the military. This is based on more than the highest, compared with the chemical composition, energy density fuel. Fuel cells are capable of producing energy until it comes to the air and fuel. Some time it seemed that such elements will press the battery becoming more desirable portable energy sources. But in practice this has not happened due to problems with the supply of fuel. In addition, the problem lies in the supply of hydrogen necessary for compounds with oxygen and generate current. Hydrogen is very difficult to transport, so it is explosive and has a low energy density. Storing it in a watery condition is also associated with certain neuvvyazkami, as it requires very low temperatures and the highest pressure. All these properties make hydrogen very impractical to use, especially on the battlefield.
Fuel cells can operate entirely on kerosene or diesel oil, but this requires additional processing of petroleum products, and the right equipment for this very precious.
Finally, all these problems have led to the development of what is now the main fuel for military pieces are concentrated on the use of alcohol fuel, namely, ethanol and methanol.
Fuel cells are the focus of 2-D laboratory British Defense Technology and Science: applets RBDS-CV to decrease the load on the individual fighter and energy source Personal Power Source.
In the development of PPS participates Qinetiq and ABSL, who are working on a 2-systems with fuel cells: Strand A and Strand B. first system is designed to highlight the power of the order of 7.2 kW to over 2-days. Its introduction may be in the power portable electronics and communications equipment, namely, BOWMAN C4I and FIST. Source weight is about 1.4 pounds, and he has the power output of 250 kW per hour per kilogram.
Companies to jointly develop and second source, which is an amalgamation akkuma and fuel parts. Protonnoobmennaya membrane as a source of hydrogen uses hard dim boron hydride-nitrogen. Weight of the second source is equal to about 6.3 kg, and its energy is equal to power of 220 kW per hour per kilogram.
There is also another promising fuel cell proposed by SFC Energy — this lightweight portable device for military use under the title JENNY 600S. It used to develop direct methanol. Wearing it on the body can also be used for carrying out operations of remote devices.
In the current time to find which of all these technologies is the best, unrealistic. They all are in the process of development and improvement, and can be fully that in the future may be the emergence of devices that will connect inside these technologies.