Movement disorders (dyskinesias)

Movement disorders (dyskinesias).  Photo from www.flickr.com

Any meaningful physical activity leads cortex. This is where the call to action that comes along nerve fibers to the spinal cord, from which impulses are sent to the muscles. Maintain the center of gravity of the body and coordinate movement, not really thinking, we can through the cerebellum. And for muscle tone, rhythm and fluidity of movement are responsible subcortical brain. Thanks to them, we are capable of a wide variety of activities: running, jumping, dance steps. The richness of emotional reactions (crying, laughing, facial expressions) is also scope subcortical nuclei.

Malfunctions of this complex system manifested by involuntary movements of all kinds. This over-activity is called in medicine hyperkinesis. For these states is characterized by the weakening of muscle tone in combination with involuntary movements and meaningless muscle spasms.

So, what are manifestations of obsessive physical activity?

Think of the nervous tremor that occurs during fatigue, stress, anxiety, excitement. This tremor. This response is typical for most healthy people. Meets and tremors caused by lesions of the cerebellum. It is characterized by tremor in the arm or leg when they approach the target. Sometimes it starts trembling while maintaining a certain posture or maintaining weight. For example, the strong shaking of the head and trunk appears in the standing position and disappears when lying down. When "tremor beating wings" man becomes like a bird who tries to fly.

Another option involuntary motor activity, familiar to most of us — miokloof. This is a momentary reduction of one muscle or group of muscles. Night jerks when falling asleep, the usual hiccups too manifestation of myoclonus. Incidentally, the latter occurs when the involuntary contraction of the diaphragm muscle.

Another common type of uncontrolled activity — tic. This is a short, sharp, repetitive jerks of the head, torso, muscles of the face, arms or legs. A simple tick (Eg, involuntary blinking) often appears in childhood and often perceived by others as nervousness and mannerisms. It generally goes away on its own, when the child becomes a teenager. However, the case that older movement disorder worse. This happens when Tourette syndrome, when the tick begins to mimic the more complex movements and accompanied by the utterance of the same type of intrusive sounds or words (logoreya). Vocal tic can manifest barking or grunting sounds. Quite often there is uncontrolled and profanity (eschrolalia).

Chorea— It's chaotic traffic. Sometimes they discreetly integrated into meaningful action. Huntington's chorea, which has a hereditary nature, appears jerky movements of arms and legs, comical dancing gait, involuntary grimace. Sometimes a person loses the ability to maintain a particular position, such as sitting, moving his knees. When rheumatic central nervous system (most often in adolescence) arises chorea, which used to be called St. Vitus's dance (she looks like grimacing and pritantsovyvanie). Meets and chorea pregnant, developing the first half of pregnancy.

Wriggling worm-like movements of the hands and feet with the changes characteristic of the item athetosis. At hemiballismus a person commits involuntary throwing or rotational lunges with one hand, less leg. Sometimes all this is accompanied by movements of the mouth.

Such violations occur and muscle tone that cause a person to take any unnatural position that interferes with normal physical activity — muscular dystonia.They can spread to the whole body or be based in individual muscle groups. For instance, torsion dystonia appears slow, corkscrew-like body movements. A spasmodic torticollis accompanied by tilting or turning the head to one side. Finally, professional dystonia arise on the basis of any repetitive work movements.

Many of the described movement disorders indicate diseases of the nervous system. Their reasons may be diverse: neurotic disorders, toxic lesions of the brain (eg, alcohol, or copper compounds), hereditary or congenital diseases, intake of certain drugs, brain injury, including birth, use of certain drugs, brain tumors, disorders cerebral blood flow (atherosclerosis, stroke and its consequences).

To get rid of compulsive movements, it is necessary to identify their root cause, which should be treated. Most can not do without long-term use of drugs that affect the activity of the motor systems of the brain. In complex cases resort to neurosurgical treatments.

According to the magazine "Family Doctor", (N12) December 1999

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