About a year ago, immigrants from the Soviet Union in large numbers began to leave the promised land and move to relocate to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. 200,000 so-called Russian-speaking Jews have left Israel, and before the end of the year, the country will leave the same amount. Ukraine ready to go on about 100,000 Russian-speaking Israelis, and most of them are going to get a Ukrainian citizen. In Russia may return about 700,000 Israeli citizens.
In the 70-80-ies of the Jews en masse to leave the Soviet Union on an Israeli visa. Most of the emigrants later moved to America and Europe, and now live in Israel, about 1 million 100 thousand of our former compatriots.
Between themselves, they continue to speak in Russian, read Russian-language press and identify themselves with the Russian rather than with Israel, and culture.
However, until recently, they felt pretty good in the new home and were not going to come back. But about a year ago, immigrants from the Soviet Union in large numbers began to leave the promised land and move to relocate to Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
200 thousand so-called Russian-speaking Jews have left Israel, and before the end of the year, the country will leave the same amount. In the Knesset are sounding the alarm: it is expected that the process of re-emigration will continue next year, and all in Russia and the CIS countries back about 700 thousand people.
Some of them are going to remain Israeli citizens, but about a third of "returnees" are going to get Russian passports.
What caused the Russian-speaking Israelis desire to move to our country and why they decided to leave it in Russia, not in Europe or America, understood the correspondent of "our version."
In the two regions of Russia are willing to accept and accommodate all the visitors of Zion tomorrow — in the Primorsky Krai and the Jewish Autonomous Region. This was quick to say governor Sergei Darkin and Nikolai Volkov. Of course, it would be logical to assume that potential migrants, politely thanked him from the kind offer of governors refuse in favor of the more attractive of the European part of Russia. Who wants to start life from scratch in the not too populated and not very promising "bear the corners?"
… Today live in Israel about 7.5 million people. Of these, 1 million 100 thousand — our former and about 1 million — yesterday's neighbors in the socialist camp. If you believe the statistics, it appears that they are already sitting on chemodanah.No, as it turned out, the supply of immigrants seems to be satisfied. And 200-250 thousand of those who are going in the near future to apply for Russian citizenship, willing to settle down in the Maritime Territory and absolutely seemingly unattractive Birobidzhan. And those who want to leave Israeli citizenship, is not averse to work in the Far East — see, therefore, some perspective. More attractive than the Middle East.
Why did the Jews choose to return to the country from which they have recently left with visible relief?
Sociologists assure that the reason lies in the aggravation of the situation in the Middle East.
Israel lives like a volcano: rockets fall on the border of the city is from the Palestinian territory, with the Lebanese. The end-edge of the shelling to be seen. Human sacrifice a little bit, but the psychological discomfort of awareness of their own vulnerability people feel not only the border of Sderot, but also remote from the border of Tel Aviv.
And if the Israeli-old residents of Vatika over the years have become accustomed to the idea that they are eternal target Arab neighbors, the newly arrived immigrants from Russia and the Soviet Union — Olim — the prospect of a life lived in constant fear of attack does not smile.
Yes, they are left to their historic homeland, but not for those that tremble with fear or die.
They drove for a better life in a country where there are queues for food and where books are sold banned dissident writers.
But the best life they never found, and found something quite different — a free work-in collective kibbutzim, easy contempt Vatika and compulsory military service for men and women. And then there's the prospect of imminent war with Iran.
Recently, the newspaper "Haaretz" published statistics on the Center for the Study of Iran University of Tel Aviv, according to which almost a quarter — 23% — residents of Israel to immediately leave the country if they find out that Iran acquired nuclear weapons. The center decided to dig a little deeper and find out who these 23%. It turned out immigrants from the former Soviet republics and Eastern Europe, mostly from Poland and Romania. Among the "indigenous" — Vatika — wishing to leave was not found at all. And now think: today live in Israel about 7.5 million people. Of these, 1 million 100 thousand — our former and about 1 million — yesterday's neighbors in the socialist camp. If you believe the statistics, it appears that they are already sitting on their suitcases.
"While there is no reason to talk about a flight of Jews from Israel — said the correspondent of" our version of "Natan Sharansky, a former well-known Soviet dissident, and later a member of Knesset. — But if a whiff of this war, everything can change. " The leader of the party "Israel Our Home", a native of Soviet Moldova, Avigdor Lieberman explains: Olim have to face problems about which they were warned in the "Jewish Agency" (an organization dedicated to the repatriation to Israel.. — Ed.), But of which they are did not want to think about before moving to their historic homeland. Once in Israel, many of these people have a real psychological shock. In this state they live here for years, with an undercurrent podumyvaya about to return to Russia.
And if Iran has announced the creation of nuclear weapons, these people will have a formal occasion to leave Israel. Someone would go to wait out the danger, and someone will leave the promised land once and for all.
Most of those who are going to go back to Russia, it is people aged 18 to 35 years. Age is not only the reproductive, but also recruiting. Representatives are very popular in Israel, the public organization "The goal is 21" assure that the lion's share of young people who want to move to Russia, pursue one goal: "hang" from serving in the Israeli army.
"Children of immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and in the best of times is not too rushed to the army — told the correspondent of" our version of "coordinator" Millennium-21 "Natanel Litvinovich. — And now, when the recruits shine participation in the war, was willing to serve even less. To pay a bribe and get the analogue of the Russian "white ticket" we can, in principle, but, first, the order of a very large amount of the bribe, the tens of thousands of dollars, and not everyone has that kind of money. And secondly, why pay that kind of money, if you can just pick up and leave?
According to the current legislation in Israel the right to alternative civilian service — Hawk Sherut a-bitahon — have only girls whose beliefs preclude military service. And the fact that those beliefs are, you will have to prove a special committee will be long and hard to check every word of the potential otkaznitsy.
Official statistics on this score is missing, but according to representatives of the "Goals-21 ', an opportunity not to serve in the military today is about a girl of five or six, have ind
icated their unwillingness to take up arms during the procedure Lishkat giyus (similar to our productions for military service).
And many parents are willing to send their daughters even to the Far East, even to the devil horns, just to save them from military service.
But the young men from the Israeli right to perform alternative civilian service is not at all. Refused to take up arms — you is a prison. "It is the severity of the laws encourages young people of draft age to think about leaving — says Natanel Litvinovich. — And then, serve in the army want a few, but really does not want to fight no Soviet immigrants and their children.
Hence the understandable desire to go back to Russia, or, say, to the Ukraine. "
Ukraine ready to go on the order of 100 thousand Russian-speaking Israelis, and most of them are going to get a Ukrainian citizen. There are rumors that Ukraine will soon be a law on dual citizenship and many young Israelis dream to take advantage of.
"Some families are still 100 times thinking would let their children in Russia or not, but now they have no choice — summed Natanel Litvinovich. — If war with Iran — and this is somehow inevitable in the near future — young people have to go to war. But not all perceive Israel as their homeland itself rather continue to believe Russia. That's for her fight the Jews would go exactly as they are received and during the Great Patriotic War. 148 Heroes of the Soviet Union — the joke? "
More or less clear why the Israelis Soviet-Russian origin want to leave the promised land. More difficult to understand why they want to leave it in Russia, not in Europe or the U.S., although this possibility, these people have. So why did Russia? Israeli philosopher and writer Larissa Naydich believes that to give up their Russian roots of the Jews was more difficult than they expected.
Until now, Israel has the so-called melting pot policy under which each new immigrant brings to the pot a piece of their culture, but draws from the common pot is common, Jewish culture.
Theory amusing, but as life has shown, untenable. The fact that the Soviet Immigrants its bit to make the pot never gave up, but that's the general scoop up some reason not in a hurry. Why?
"The educational and general cultural level of Russian Jewish emigration was very high — explains Larissa Naiditsch. — About 60% of adult immigrants from Russia in the late 80's — early 90's had a higher education, and, for comparison, among Jewish Israelis, the figure was only 18-20%.
Recall from traveling to Israel? As a rule, of cities — from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Tashkent, Minsk, Odessa. The public culture, you know?
Not surprisingly, polls and statistics show that Russian-speaking immigrants in Israel pose Russian culture — literature, music, visual arts, humanities — much higher than Israel's, and that distinguishes them from the expatriate communities of other countries. "
And here are some statistics: 50% of immigrants from Russia and the CIS countries spend their free time only with their own kind, the Russian-speaking Israelis. Another 40% — "with Russian and Israeli friends," and only 10% — "with Israeli friends."
"Only 12.5% of immigrants had a romantic relationship outside of the Russian community, and 52.7% of them said that such relations are impossible for them, in principle, — says Larissa Naiditsch. — So what about the blending of cultures does not have to talk. " We add that the Russian-speaking Israelis prefer to live compactly, say in Ashkelon or Rishon-le-Zion, and are reluctant to communicate in Hebrew, preferring to speak in Russian.
In Israel, we recall, has two official languages: Hebrew — "Revival" Hebrew and Arabic. Russian could become the third official language. In 1998, the deputies of the Knesset initiative has been launched to secure for them this status, but the proposal did not pass, it blocked the Vatika. Nevertheless, in the same Ashkelon and Rishon Lezion can see many Russian posters and signage. In the ATM except Hebrew and Arabic available in English or Russian selection menu, and the telephone information services can easily contact with the "Russian" operator.
Since 2002, the Israeli TV channel aired out "Israel Plus" programs are broadcast in Russian with subtitles in Hebrew. The audience "Israel Plus" is 11% obscheizrailskoy. In addition, cable or satellite TV, available in about 90% of Russian families, makes it possible to receive and Russian channels. The famous Israeli writer and sociologist Larissa Remennik claims that the year-on-year increase in overseas interest in the Russian mass media, as well as to the Israeli press in Russian:
"Our social scientists operate with such figures: 40% of Russian-speaking Israelis regularly read Russian newspapers and magazines, and 31% — regularly, despite the fact that the Hebrew periodicals regularly read only 9%, and regularly — 15%.
With fiction situation is even more revealing: regularly read books in Russian 32%, and only 2% of reading books in Hebrew, Ladino and Yiddish. "
What does such a low percentage of reading literature in Hebrew? Only one thing: a lack of interest. Immigrants from Russia and former Soviet republics remain in the Russian cultural space. Here is the answer to the question, why did Russia, not Europe or the U.S..
Last year, the Knesset again introduced a bill to grant the Russian language official status. Status was not given, but the Russian-speaking deputies have made to the language of his "improved." "Perhaps, the status of the Russian language will be changed by Ukrainian model — explains the Knesset, Avigdor Lieberman. — There, faced with the inability to make Russian the status of the state language, coined the term "regional". And now the Russian can be used in a number of regions of Ukraine together with the state. We could do something like that. "
But even this is unlikely to hold "our former people" from the desire to return to Russia.
"Back in the '70s, the Soviet Jews had the" Pink Dream "- Israel — shared his observations with a reporter," our version of "well-known poet and singer-songwriter Julius Kim. — In this dream had everything: rivers of milk and milk and honey, some kind of metaphysical unreality of the Promised Land and the possibility of finding a new homeland common to all Jews. Something — of equality and fraternity, something — from fairy tales. A fleeing, many were surprised to find that now the "pink dream" has become Russia, return. As the prodigal children, Jews tend to back "home."
Israel, of course, the historical homeland, no doubt, but not all, have found here their "home". Hence the nostalgia and the desire to go back in time to the youth in the country where we all left. And it is quite natural that we want to go back to Russia. "
Start the mass emigration of Soviet Jews to Israel dates back to 1970. In Palestine, to relocate leaving and before that: in the 30's and late 40's — then from the Union left quite a lot of military officers and even generals, the obstacles they did not put even more encouraging, because it was believed that in this way the Soviet Union is strengthening its presence in the Middle East.
Then, after the death of Stalin, the foreign-way roads of Israel and the Soviet Union long gone, and emigration is temporarily stopped.
There were rumors that Brezhnev's permission to travel again persuaded by his wife, a Jew by birth. Like it or not — is unknown, but in the 70's was a massive exodus of the Jews. Total from 1970 to 2006 from the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation went to Israel about 1.9 million Jews.
However, prior to the Promised Land, arrived not all — according to various estimates, about half of them moved to Germany and America.
Everything in the world to live about 13 million Jews, this so-called "ethnic core." And the idea of repatriation to Israel, not all of them are positive.
For example, the Hasidim do not approve of this idea: they are convinced that the Jews were evenly spread all over the world for a reason, they simply commanded not to have their own state.
There is no desire to leave America for Israel and the American Jewish community across the ocean to help the Israelis prefer cash. To date, before Israel is about the same problem as before the Russian village: young people left for America, Europe, old people die, and the population gradually becomes non-Jewish.
There are statistics showing that in 2020 the majority of ethnic Arabs in Israel will be (up to 53% of the population).
Izrus.co.il — Immigrants are leaving Israel, the real figures
Statistics cited by the government for immigrants who left Israel, deliberate misinformation. The real picture of what is happening shows the demographic catastrophe …
At the recently concluded in Israel Herzliya Conference a separate section was devoted to the 20th anniversary of the arrival in Israel of Jews from the former Soviet Union and their integration or disintegration in the Israeli society. Section, according to the composition of the speakers, was another Russian-Israeli cabal, once again stressing that the question no one except the Russian, Israel is not interested.
The discussion touched upon the topic of immigrants from the Soviet Union, then left the Jewish state, which has become a bogey for a variety of statesmen, politicians and functionaries of the Jewish Agency from the "Russian street." However, the exact number of returnees who left Israel, so no one knows.
The Israeli government claims that it is about 60 thousand people. Julius Edelshtein, when he was Minister of Immigrant Absorption, talked about 250 thousands. On which it was based, is unknown. Mikhail Filippov, perhaps, the most knowledgeable Israeli expert on this issue, announced the official data on 90 million left. The number of "Jordy" unknown. When we contacted the CSO, we were told that such data in the public domain they do not — says Philip. — For special processing files, supposedly required for this, they demanded a fee that even our Institute could not afford it. These data are, but too many of their publication is not profitable, and independent researchers can not buy them. "" Think about it — a country that spends millions on promoting aliyah almost ceased in recent years, is not ready to disclose the number of immigrants each year leaving this country . "
At the Herzliya Conference again sounded that same figure: About 90,000 immigrants from the former Soviet Union, did not stick to the new place, returned. Compared with other communities, this figure is greatest. However, this is only 9.3% of the total number of "Russian" immigrants. In other communities, the numbers are much higher. For example, the U.S. has returned 15% of immigrants from the country, and in Argentina — 22%. The statistics provided in the last paragraph — a deliberate misinformation.
Let's start with the "returnees" from other countries — these data are published and no secret to anyone are not. In particular, the statistics of immigrants who left Israel published in the annual reports of the Jewish Agency. According to these data, the champions are natives of Canada — have returned to the pre-historic homeland of approximately 40%. They were followed by immigrants from the United States — 35% of the returnees. With immigrants from Argentina all the more interesting. In 2000, as in Latin America, the deepest economic crisis broke out, the government of Israel and the Jewish Agency leather climbed to the crest of the hardest economic situation in Argentina lead to Israel as much as possible of the Jews from the country.
However, neither looking at all the propaganda efforts and unprecedented economic incentives to Israel from Argentina immigrated just over 4 thousand people, and this is when thousands of the Jewish community of Argentina (figures cite from memory, but the statistics of these years is open). In 2004-2005, about a major scandal broke out when it was revealed that the number of guests at the time of about 2 million have returned, unable to cope with growing up in Israel in those years, unemployment, difficulties learning Hebrew and exclusion of Israeli society. The exact figures can be found in the publications in the prevailing Israeli newspapers, in particular, in the "Ma'ariv". I think since then the figure returned Argentines could only increase, so about 22% of what it is, I do not understand.
But the real oddities begin as soon as it comes to the Russian-speaking immigrants who left Israel for the past 20 years. Looking ahead, we note that nowhere on the eyes I did not come across the numbers of immigrants from the Soviet Union, making it 70 years and then left Israel. And for good reason — a lot of interesting things can be gleaned there.
So — "About 90,000 immigrants from the former Soviet Union, did not stick to the new location, came back." Amazingly interesting statement, as the figure itself. When it comes to the so-called "Returned back" officially recognized Israeli establishment, then this figure must be added at least 40 million Russian-speaking Israelis living in Canada, mostly in Toronto. In the Israeli consulate in Toronto, if desired, could be a more accurate statistics. How many Russian-speaking Israelis moved to the United States and Europe are not announced publicly.
It is first and foremost about the programmers, doctoral, etc. I will assume that we are talking about a few tens of thousands of people. Thus, de facto, by the most conservative estimates, Israel left the 150-170 thousand Russian-speaking Israelis. And this is much more than 6-7% of which official Israel prefers traditional brush off. But this is not very important figure as the percentage which the number of emigrants is the number of able-bodied immigrants aged 18-45 years. I do not have exact numbers, so I will refrain from unfounded conclusions. However, I venture to suggest that it is about at least 25-30%. From my point of view, it's a disaster.
"Do not get accustomed to a new place, came back" — this phrase is the cynicism and amateurism, which refers to the establishment of Israel demographic processes in their own country. Who came back? Reserve officer of the Israeli army, who was born in the capital of Kyrgyzstan, Frunze, repatriated at the age of 15 years, serve in combat units with secondary and higher education in Israel, and after the lapse of nearly 20 years, decided to go to work in Moscow — it's his call returned back? ? Those who came to Israel from all over the former Soviet empire, having served in the Israeli army, ending the Israeli universities, creating a family in Israel has built an exemplary career, took a decision at some point that in Moscow they will be able to do better than in Tel Aviv, Avie — they are called "returning back"? "Do not get accustomed to the new location" — how officials would like to believe that all the losers who left solid. What ostrich nearsightedness and blatant irresponsibility. These "losers" after moving to Moscow, for some reason become widely used by journalists, successful entrepreneurs and successful managers. And the real losers are living in Israel for social benefits, hanging around the neck of the state, and having no ambition.
The story of immigrants from the former Soviet Union neodnoznachnp, it can no
t be summed up in one propaganda slogan, and even more so in the present as an achievement of a structure. In Israel came close to a million people. The government has done nothing to prepare for it. Israeli society was not able to deal adequately with the economic and social changes that marked the beginning of the repatriation of the USSR. Over the years, repatriation diminished. Those who say that the Jewish reservoir in the CIS and Baltic states ended — lie.
In Moscow alone live at least 250 thousand Jews. Why do not they go to Israel? Why did the Jews of South Africa, most of which left South Africa, went to Australia, not in Israel? Why did the Jews in Latin America are choosing to emigrate anywhere, not only to the Jewish state? What's going on in Israel with demographics? There are no answers. And these questions no one asked. It is much easier to hang the label of losers, and to send promotional delegation of Jewish communities in the Diaspora, in no way taking care of those who have already arrived.