Commander, naikrupneyshy in recent history military theorist, writer and lecturer, military geographer and orientalist, member of the Russian Geographical Society, Labour Hero — it's all about him, about Andrey Snesareva.
In our history, a lot of white spots. But such an unimaginable amount as "sunset stagnation" when hardly observed. I meant it in the past, but very clearly realized when exactly 25 years ago received a journalistic assignment from the military version of the newspaper, which then worked to write about Snesareva. "Hitromudry Ulysses" — a member of the Political Bureau of Gorbachev, Yakovlev was preparing to, to be on the lam from Afghanistan. A Snesarev just claimed that no conqueror the world has ever destiny to conquer this mountain country. Instructed me KGB general and personal friend Andropov Vyacheslav Ervandovich Kevorkov: "Please Note: The materials on this royal Gen. not very much. But that's for you to phone his daughter. Maybe she has kept something of his father's inheritance. If yes, then try to treat it critically … ".
The encyclopedia "Civil war and military intervention, and the USSR "I found about it:" … the Soviet. commander. From the family of a priest. He graduated from Moscow University and the Academy of the General Staff. Member of the 1st World War, Lieutenant-General. In 1917 he was elected commander of the 9th Army Corps. In May 1918, voluntarily entered into a reddish Army, was the military manage North. Caucasus Military neighborhood. In September-November 1918, the head of the Western District of Defense in November 1918 and May 1919 the commander of the West (March Lithuanian-Belarusian) army. Since July 1919 the head of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army. Then on the research and educational work. " Re-read in the same encyclopedia all the action in which it was due for another Snesarev participate, and … found no trace of his role. In a large and fairly detailed article "The defense of Tsaritsyn", including three detailed diagrams Snesareva name is not even mentioned! And so I remember, took a nuisance! In truth, a couple of years back he graduated from the military academy, but it turns out, completely do not know the history of our army, which had already been promoted to lieutenant colonel and military special-TASS correspondent at the Ministry of Defense of the USSR! What did then read about people far from the army. Yes, none of them had no idea who se Snesarev.
But he was one of the few military leaders, which not just here and there in some objected to Stalin. Andrey almost clashed with Joseph Vissarionovich the design and conduct, perhaps the biggest defensive operation in the civilian war.
This fundamentally a military conflict, and then decided the fate of the general, identified the oblivion it for decades to come.
I met with Evgenia Andreevnoj Snesareva, which later was friends until her death …
Prior to tell about Tsaritsin disaster, it makes sense to at least briefly talk about the record of the list Snesareva. It is curious and purely human, and even as these data will allow us to more deeply understand the meaning and scope of the collision of the Russian — Soviet military intellectuals and Stalin.
Snesarev origin, as already mentioned, is really from the family of a priest. But to go in the footsteps of his father refused and went to the Metropolitan Institute. In 1888, with the brilliance of its ends with a thesis on endlessly small quantities. Some teachers recommended him for perfection in the field of generous, the other teachers are as arguments to persuade him to linguistic activity. Do joke: a young graduate of the University of capital is free to read and write in several languages. (Later, he was overcome by fourteen languages!). But what about the boys singing abilities? After all, with Sobinova he took lessons at the Metropolitan Conservatory, brilliantly played the best singing party, and the management of the Great Theatre was considering enrolling in Snesareva troupe. He was there even debut. But the guy is everything its own way, and, driven by patriotic feelings, enters the Infantry School. Seven years is a part of the drill, then he enrolled at the Academy of the General Staff. In 1899, by order of A. Snesarev Kuropatkina sails away for a few months in India, where he meets and gets acquainted with Lord Curzon. Just before World War I, AE Snesarev engaged in the research of the Central Asian theater of war. It happens in Afghanistan, the Pamirs, in the UK. He writes books, articles, speaking with public lectures, edits the magazine "Information concerning the states bordering the Turkestan Military District."
In 1904 he married. This fact could not devote too much. But in-1's, Eugene V. Zaitsev long years of imprisonment Snesareva become his guardian angel, will save almost all of the creative legacy wife, raised and educated six kids! And, in-2, it's a bit too soft-spoken shtrishok in the biography of my hero. Imagine a handsome officer, the soul of a unique society, a person has acquired the European name already in arithmetic, oriental studies, geography and military affairs. Now, Imagine, what party would make for themselves such officer in the high society of St. Petersburg. But Snesarev finds his wife in a remote Osh. She is the daughter of Captain, Chief Horogoskogo frontier. Just his whole life he did with all my heart, in accordance with his own conscience, honesty of the Russian intelligentsia.
From the earliest days of the imperialist war Snesarev at the front, in the army of General Brusilov. Waging war skillfully brave. This is evidenced by a number of major awards, the first order of St. ZHoru 3rd and 4th degree.
One day … in the morning the soldiers that are in the trenches of the first band, saw the approaching cluster of yellowish gas: the enemy launched a gas attack. Panic broke out in the trenches. The Russian fighter has no means of chemical protection. Not only confused Snesarev: gave the spark fires on the parapets and trenches to lay low. The accumulation of OM, elevated smoke drifted over the trenches. And none of the 1st affected!
Authority in Snesareva fighter was so high that the summer of 1917, delegates soldiers' committee of the 9th Army Corps unanimously elected him as their leader. This is the only case so that the royal lieutenant-general has such confidence.
After the October Revolution, a special decree of all the great Russian scientists of the country were taken by individual account and are broken, regardless of their academic awards at the group. Andrey E. attributed to the higher category under the letter "A". He was appointed a member of the Central Commission for improving the living conditions of scientists made at the direction of V. Lenin. For better or worse, poor, but life, life Snesareva and his family in a country shaken by revolution were established. The main question remains open: who to be him, Lieutenant General, caressed by the royal regime, swore allegiance to the regime. "It is difficult to immediately grasp what has happened — he admitted in a letter to a co-worker — but if the Russian people went over to the Bolsheviks, then I'm with him. After all, people do not make mistakes. "
"Sim is to certify that the bearer of this Andrey Snesarev really
is military control of the North Caucasus District Commissariat for Military Affairs. The Council of People's Commissars of the offers to all government and Russian organizations and institutions to cooperate fully with the appointed person for all matters related to their office. Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars V. Ulyanov (Lenin). "
So Snesarev entered a new, more catchy period of his life. The defense of Tsaritsyn was his Toulon, although supporters of Stalin have done everything possible and impracticable to attribute only the leader of all the awards for her organization. Arriving in the city on the Volga, Snesarev convinced that neither neighborhood nor the front was not. May 29, reported to Moscow: "On the Protection of Mud-Tsaritsin the railroad (which was the main task of the neighborhood), and in the Tsaritsyno is less than 6 thousand fighters at several guns and cavalry squadrons: the troops in fact sit on the same road, in the cars. There is no connection between them. Land north to Aleksikovo not protected; ammunition to the final, most of the commanders, despite the hot zeal, truly lead the parts can not. "
In the conditions of a complete mess Andrey takes positive steps to organize the defense.
Struggles against the attempts to revive the general election of command and control of troops to concentrate in the hands of the committee. In the short term well and thoroughly secures the front line, creating a measured defense of the approaches to Tsaritsyn. While preserving food and oil artery, not allowing to unite the White Guard armies south and east. These were acts of deep and strategist strategy that relied on his vast experience to the forefront by the time the findings and advice of military science. He tried by all means justify the supreme confidence of the young republic, it is paying for itself in mind, no matter how basic task assigned to it.
"Protecting the Tsarina — read Snesarev, speaking at an emergency meeting of the Council with the role of party, trade union and military organizations — because of its present-day value — business nationwide. There can be no dispute about how to protect the city or not, the question is the following: what are the forces needed to protect it and how to use them? "
And here comes the Stalin Tsaritsyn to the mandate of the "general manager of the food business in the south of Russia."
Acts Snesareva and other military experts who have positive results were attributed to this point, the leader, and, on the contrary, the results of lesions treated on the conscience of military professionals, whom Stalin scornfully called "cobblers." This makes sense: his advisor and mentor for Tsaritsin epic was Voroshilov, who Snesarev in the report of the Chairman of the Supreme Military Council of L. Trotsky described the "so Voroshilov as army chief does not have the appropriate properties. He is not imbued with a long service life and does not keep the rules simple command of the troops. "
The result of that no matter what — it was the main purpose of Stalin. He acted accordingly: "I will fix these and many other shortcomings in the field — wrote Lenin, Stalin. — I take a number of measures and will continue to take the offset ruining business officials and commanders, despite the formal difficulties that when necessary I will crush. With all this, it is clear that I take full responsibility before all higher institutions. "
How annoying would it sounds, arguments and reasons in favor of a thorough Snesareva strengthen the defense and building momentum for the next attack, Stalin did not want to listen. His plan was declared a "sabotage" on the grounds that he has a "print defencism." Confirmation does not trouble himself, but, undeterred in strong Russian expressions, put "these shoemakers' in its place. Most of the silent and gave Snesarev resistance. As it looked in detail at the moment, no one will find out. But the fact is that Stalin has since openly snubbed military instructor. At headquarters, and later around the town suddenly rumors: Apartment Snesareva — nest of spies, he — a protege of foreign intelligence services, the head of the White Guard underground organization. Before the arrival of Stalin's nothing similar was observed. By the way, Snesarev freely walk in the front part of the royal general's uniform, without causing any ordinary fighter at that time, to the exasperation "zolotopogonnikam."
He is remembered and loved since the War of the brain, courage and justice. To comments on the insecurity of wearing a general's uniform Snesarev relaxed replied: "Shoulder straps — a symbol of military awards. Besides have no demoted ".
After a while Snesarev had to change clothes, just rumors that step is not diminished. And often flew to Moscow to look at specific and sensible reports, "military instructor Snesarev, in my opinion, very cleverly sabotages the work of cleansing strips Kotelnikov — Tikhoretskaya. Because of this, I decided to personally go to the front and get to know the situation. Took with him a Commander of the Voroshilov, the technical unit. All this we managed to do in spite of Snesarev that, contrary to expectations, also went to the front. " "The line, of course, can be cleaned in the short term, if for armored train to move the twelve thousandth army, standing under Gashun and bound hand and foot Snesareva orders." "Now two requests: first — to remove Snesareva who can not, can not or does not want to fight with the counter with his countrymen — the Cossacks (Snesarev originally from an old Kalitva Voronezh — Moscow 3.). Maybe he's a bad one in the war against the Germans, but in the war-revolution it — severe brake, and if shedding up to now not is clean — incidentally, because even priemuschestvenno as Snesarev slow business. Second request — let us urgently about eight armored vehicles. "
Lenin realized: no military experts can not win the war. Because showed restraint with respect to these messages.
Yet when Snesarev issued military order, in which a group of Voroshilov (the one already described himself as "Commander of the Front") was assigned to a support role, Stalin intervened to "treacherous" orders not to enter into force. Initially, staff officers arrested the neighborhood — close aides Snesareva, and then the very military instructor. These "cobblers" planted in the hold and the barge began to act "with all the revolutionary determination."
The conflict between Stalin and Snesareva (the so-called "Barge case") was sorting out a special inspection of the Supreme Military Council, which confirmed the legality of most actions the District Commander, and most importantly, helped him from the physical execution. Snesareva urgently recalled to Moscow, where his activity positively evaluated and appointed first Chief of Defence of the Western Region, and then commander of the Belarusian-Lithuanian army.
As you know, well finished and the defense of Tsaritsyn. But success came only when they began to act in snesarevski — to establish discipline, suspend spontaneously created military leaders, to teach people respect for chain of command, a major chain of command, compulsory execution of orders. With all of this under the city on the Volga River killed about 60 thousand Red Army soldiers. To a large extent, these losses were the result of ill-considered, hasty action, Voroshilov Budennogo Kulik Shchadenko, Minin. By the way, the first three were then marshals the fourth — Colonel-General. Only Minin, who asserted that "philosophy as an instrument of exploitation, should be thrown overboard," retired in 1927 and died a pensioner Union value in 80 years. These are the opponents were in Snesareva ..
Certainly, in my youth, they all had the hot zeal as you can run fas
ter revolutionary puzzle, but the military did not have the knowledge and study of such generals as Snesarev considered below its "proletarian dignity."
From such people, by the way, and went for a walk arrogant: we academies did not finish … This complacency ignoramuses very cheap cost then our people.
In August 1919 AE Snesarev was recalled from the army and was appointed head of the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army. Hastily erected a new building of military science, far has not been completed and the remaining, so to speak, in the woods sought a thorough completion and finishing. Andrey took the job with enthusiasm and zeal. He had to fight on two fronts: on the Proletkultists who zealously renounce "lecture scholasticism" and part of old times with professors opposing renewal programs and teaching methods. I wrote about this: "I was ready to walk the path of an old poor substitute good new unknown even though the last such incomprehensible new, but I could not do a good fit and just past the benefit has not experienced at least seductive and coming."
Snesarev the first time raised the question of the deepest scientific understanding and research strategies and policies plainclothes war. In 1920, the academy began to lecture on this important area. They were, according to Snesareva, very "encyclopedic", are common, but marked a new step in the development of military-historical scholarship. In the middle of the first professors who read the course was betrothed himself head of the academy. He also began teaching another new course — "The Psychology of War." Wrote articles on strategy and strategy. Developed and read lectures — "The firing tactics," "The current strategy." Vatsetis has reviewed books on the history of the art of war, Svechin — Strategy, Boris Shaposhnikov — of the General Staff. Snesarev was a member of the military-historical commission on lessons learned from the First World War and the President of the Chief Military Research edition. Peru Snesareva in those years also translated the Schlieffen military theorists, Bernhardi, Kul, Mooring, Kuhlmann, Falkengeyna, equipped with his introductions and notes.
Total Strategy and the strategy saved 30 publications a scientist. In 1921, he made a report on "The General Staff and its purpose", highlighting the need for special training for those destined to work in such an important military establishment.
I give myself to report that the transfer of proceedings Snesareva — not the most entertaining reading for human malosveduschego, but please believe that any of these activities on their own value and significance for the experts have not lost value, and up to the present time. In their Andrey prefaced many of the theoretical assumptions made later Vatsetis, Svechin, Shaposhnikov. Many of his views substantially or completely identical to the provisions developed in the late 1920s — mid-1930s in the work of Frunze, Tukhachevsky, Isserson, Triandafillov and entered into the treasury of the Russian military theory. But he is still involved in the problems of Oriental, military geography and war economy. So, after a hard struggle and intense scientific activity took place "years utryasok, excitement and trials, years of construction and the creation of law." Erected only the bottom floor of the academic building, which, of course, was far from perfect. But looking back on the time spent by Andrey E. on such an important post, it's safe to say that he did everything in his power, as determined by his upbringing and education for becoming Russian, Russian military science. When, in 1928, introduced the title of Hero of Labor, one of the first it was awarded to Dr. AE Snesarev. Then he became a member of the Academy.
But in 1930, the famous scientist blamed for counter-revolutionary activities. It should be arrested for so-called "Russian State of the Union" and "Spring." Total for him was arrested by some reports more than 3 thousand people. Among them — AA Svechin, pp. Sytin, FF Novitsky, AI Verkhovskii, JK Gravitsky, VA Olderogge, VA Yablochkin, NV Sologub, AA Baltic, MD Bonch-, NA Morozov, AE Gutor, AH Bazarevsky, MS Matiyasevich, VN Gatovsky other. This is, in general, a separate topic, but here I wish to emphasize that far not all of those arrested were soldiers of the Red Army. Moreover — and not everyone was an old army officers. Many defendants (AA Svechin AL Rodendorf, etc.) in 1932, was released and returned to the command posts in the Red Army, although in both these cases all were sentenced to "death penalty."
From the memoirs of his daughter Eugenia Snesareva Andreevny, "Mom wrote petitions in all instances. Central Executive Committee of the answer has not come yet. Voroshilov, refused to accept it. Budennyi said by phone is not able to assist. Uborevich wrote: "In view of the impossibility to contribute, your request has no consequences."
Mother sent a telegram to Stalin followed. We got no answer. Dad sent to the Solovki camp. He meekly bore own heavy cross. My mother often came to him. Mother With years, that my father was transferred from the island to mainland bullpen, where he had the opportunity to work with. Pope began writing the book, "What they say battlefields" and of "fire tactics." Took the time to work. Approaching its 70th anniversary, the health worsened, and a life that contributed to hell. After the first paralysis of them took up a commission under the chairmanship of renowned psychiatrist, neurologist, Orsha. Verdict: junk needs special care. Dad spent a few months in a Leningrad prison clinic. There he was found invalid (non-moving hand and foot) and "early conditionally" released from protection. At home, he suffered a heart attack and three more before they reach three years before the end of the prison term, was killed in a metropolitan hospital. "
I tried to find a private matter Lieutenant General AE Snesareva. It's unfortunate. Apart from the certificates of release from prison and rehabilitation in 1958 in the capital's recruiting office is nothing.
Works military scientist lucky anymore. In the archives of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR have the Orientalists fund number 115 of the documents and materials, savings wife of a scientist. Then about 400 units. As the name Snesareva on long years was forgotten, his work does not demand even during the commissioning and long-time host of the Russian troops in Afghanistan. You'll see, timely appeal to Snesarev has saved us from this tragic mistake …
Our world is on the paradoxes. Here are some of them. Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR, the foundation of which is based Andrey E. Snesareva — a brilliant scientist, a military commander and polymath, a long time (until 1992) was named after Voroshilov, a man who had no work to military science. If I was to transfer savings shape memory Kliment, no place I would not have sufficed. A name Snesareva in our Armed Forces did not perpetuated. There are, however, at Vagankovsky cemetery tombstone with the inscription: "Professor, Corps Commander AE Snesarev. 1865-1937. From the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. "