Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer (prostate)

Prostate or prostate gland— Internal organ male reproductive system, which covers a wide bracelet initial parts of the urethra. The main function of the prostate is the production of seminal fluid (up to 30% of the total) and participation in the act of ejaculation. Prostate also has a direct bearing on the ability of men to hold urine.

Cancer prostate — a malignant tumor, developing, usually from the tissue of prostate gland. As with other cancers, prostate cancer tends to metastasize (spread throughout the body).

Statistics relentless: Prostate cancer occurs in one in seven men over 50 years. And, unfortunately, it is this disease — one of the most frequent causes of death for older men.

Causes

Until now, the cause of prostate cancer is not fully understood. However, it is known that the disease is associated with the male sex hormone — testosterone. The higher its level in the blood of the patient, the more likely the development of his prostate cancer and those of malignant disease will be.

Risk factors also include:

  • old age;
  • bad heredity (close relatives of prostate cancer patients);
  • having progressive prostate adenoma;
  • bad ecology;
  • work with cadmium (welding and printing, rubber);
  • improper diet (lots of animal fat, little fiber), etc.

What's going on?

Prostate cancer is usually slow and characterized by malignant course. This means that the tumor grows relatively slowly (with the appearance of microscopic tumor in the prostate cancer to the last step is an average of 10-15 years).

Prostate cancer may give early metastasis, that is even smaller tumors can begin to spread to other organs. Most often, the spread goes to the lymph nodes, bone (pelvis, hips, spine), lungs, liver, adrenal glands. This is the biggest risk of cancer. Before the advent of metastatic tumor can be removed, and it will stop the disease. But if there were metastases, remove all of them can not no doctor, and completely cure a person is no longer possible.

How to recognize?

The problem is that the symptoms of the disease begin to disturb a man only when the disease has gone too far, and the chances of a full recovery is low. Prostate cancer can manifest frequent urination, pain in the perineum, blood in urine and semen. But it may not mark any of these symptoms. And then the first manifestation of the disease will be signs that are characteristic of metastasis: a pain in the bones (pelvis, hip, spine) and fractures, pain in the chest.

In advanced cases may develop acute urinary retention, as well as symptoms of cancer intoxication: a person loses weight rapidly, weakening, and his skin is very pale, with an earthy hue.

Rarer symptoms of prostate cancer — impotence or weak erections (cancer has affected the nerves that control erection), reducing the amount of semen during ejaculation (tumor blocks the ejaculatory duct).

Diagnostics

If you have any problems with urination — urgently contact a doctor-urologist. Perhaps not all that bad, and it's only adenoma or inflammation of the prostate.

The first thing the doctor will check the condition of the prostate gland — will hold a DRE (rectum) survey. This is the easiest way to research, allowing suspected carcinoma of the prostate. Unfortunately, if the tumor can be felt, most often it is already one of the late stages of cancer. Therefore, even if the tumor is not detectable, the patient will appoint a further study: a blood test for prostate specific antigen (PSA).

PSA — is a substance whose concentration in blood increases sharply men for prostate cancer. For the diagnosis of the patient may also appoint a prostate ultrasound, computed tomography, X-ray and radioisotope studies.

The definitive diagnosis of cancer prostate placed after prostate biopsy — a needle through the perineum or rectum is taken a little bit of research for cancer.

Treatment

There is a prompt, medication and radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Whichever method you choose, oncologist decide individually depending on patient age, extent and stage of cancer, presence of metastases.

Surgical treatment (removal of the prostate gland) is usually used only when the tumor has not metastasized. If the operation is successful, it almost guarantees a full recovery from prostate cancer without any consequences for health.

Pharmacological therapies are treated with hormones which reduce or inhibit testosterone, which reduces the rate of growth of the tumor and its metastases. Hormone treatment is not a complete cure, but for how long the patient's condition improves and reduces the symptoms of the disease.

Radiotherapy — radiation exposure prostate tumors, or to reduce the rate of tumor growth, decrease the probability of occurrence of metastasis but does not ensure complete cure of cancer.

Often, radiation and drug therapy are used together to enhance the effect of treatment.

An alternative method of radiation exposure on the prostate gland in the early stages of the disease — brachytherapy. The essence of the method: under ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland entered pellets of radioactive iodine, thus in the area of malignancy achieved a high dose of radiation, and the surrounding tissue does not suffer. The procedure for administration of capsules takes approximately one hour and is conducted on an outpatient basis, which distinguishes it from other types of radiation treatment.

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