Psychoanalysis — The direction of psychology, founded in the late XIX century by the Austrian psychiatrist and psychologist Sigmund Freud.
Originally psychoanalysis emerged as a method of study and treatment of hysterical neurosis. The results of the practice of psychotherapy, as well as analysis of the various phenomena of normal mental life — dreams, mistakes, to wit — were interpreted by Freud as the result of the general psychological mechanisms.
The basic premise of psychoanalysis is a division of the psyche into the conscious and the unconscious. Behavior and thinking of the person determine unconscious desire, rooted in traumatic childhood experiences or come into conflict with the existing society moral and cultural norms. So there intrapsychic conflicts. The resolution of these conflicts is performed by displacement of consciousness "bad", but the natural instincts and desires. Forced out of the consciousness of desire and desire does not disappear without a trace. They are driven into the depths of the human psyche and in one way or another, sooner or later, make themselves felt, causing tension.
What is a psychoanalysis?
First, psychoanalysis — a method of treatment, and at the present time almost all psychoanalysts — doctors. Psychoanalyst tries to relieve the symptoms of the patient, freeing it from unnecessary doubt unjustified feelings of guilt, self-blame painful, false judgments and irrational impulses. In addition, it aims to not only reassure the patient, but also to unravel his identity. But analyst — only the head of the observer, is responsible for the outcome of the process is ultimately patient.
Secondly — this is a method of scientific observation and study of the individual, and in particular desires, impulses, motives, dreams, fantasies, and early development of emotional disorders.
Third, — a system of scientific psychology, that is, monitoring and reporting of psychoanalysis can be used in trying to predict human behavior and outcome of human relationships, such as marriage and the relationship between parents and children.
How is the psychoanalysis?
The process of psychoanalysis is to study and reorganization of the individual; this is done to ensure that individual could keep their stress with less difficulty, until it is time to take them off. Necessary to make the unconscious conscious and to bring under the supervision of unmet stress. It is believed that in order to completely carry out this process, it should last at least a year, and between three and six sessions a week, each lasting approximately one hour. If the study lasts less than one year, or less than the number of sessions three times a week, the efficient conduct of the process is almost impossible.
To carry out the psychoanalytic session, the patient is laid down on the couch and the analyst sits down in his mind to be out of sight. Due to this patient's psyche can work without distraction. In turn, this method eliminates the excessive tension physician: without being under continuous surveillance, it can better focus on the fact that said patient.
Use the so-called free association. This means that the free expression of the free flow of ideas is not contained and does not change the usual censorship of consciousness (the notions of politeness, shame, self-esteem).
In the state of free association, the patient's mind is often crowded with desires, feelings, reproaches, memories, fantasies, judgments and new points of view, and all of this occurs on the face of a mess. However, despite the apparent confusion and incoherence, every utterance and every gesture has its meaning in connection with a particular strain unsatisfied. Hour after hour, day after day of chaotic web of thoughts begin to appear and the value of communication. For a long period may gradually develop some central themes relating to a number of unmet early childhood, long buried in the unconscious and inaccessible to conscious recognition of the stresses that make up the basic structure of the individual patient, the source of all his symptoms and associations.
Analytics position relative to the patient should be strictly neutral. The main work is the analyst in a way that every time he points to the patient when he is deceiving himself, so doctor should all the time to keep the self-critical position, eliminating any manifestations of sympathy and indignation of the patient, which would give an opportunity to deceive the doctor and yourself. Junk emotional attitude analyst to the patient is called countertransference.
The question often arises whether psychoanalysis is someone hurt? The biggest danger — is to treat the patient on the verge of psychosis, if analyst is unaware of his true condition. The analyst must also be careful in distinguishing neuroses of certain diseases of the brain and hormonal disorders.
Based on the book by E. Berne
"Introduction to psychiatry and psychoanalysis for the uninitiated"