Psychodrama — a method of group therapy, which uses a form of theatrical action and dramaturgical vocabulary. Psychodrama was developed by Moreno, a physician with a special interest in the emotional sphere and the social relations of their patients.
1921 is the year of birth of psychodrama: it was then Moreno has created a project called "Theatre of Spontaneity" and began to use dramatic action as a psychotherapeutic method.
Moreno himself believed psychodrama techniques that are able to live life situations and goes far beyond the scope of psychotherapy. In this method, he singled out five key elements:
Protagonist — Participant at the center of the psychodrama of action, which in the course of the session explores some aspects of his personality.
Director — Who, along with the protagonist determines the direction of the process and creates the conditions for making any personal drama. The Director acts as a therapist.
Supporting the "I" — Members of the group (or co-therapists), which play important roles in the life of the protagonist of people, thus contributing to the development of the dramatic process.
Audience — Part of a group is not directly involved in the drama. Even those members who are not directly involved in the drama, yet remain actively and positively involved in the process and therefore receive from psychodrama, and enjoyment and benefit.
Scene — Most of the space in the room is quite spacious, that there might be some physical movement.
Classical psychodrama consists of three phases: warm-up, dramatic action and Sheringham. Each of them is a complete and self-contained process.
Warming up has several important specific objectives:
— Contributes to the spontaneity and creativity of the participants. Moreno has paid special attention to the fact that psychodrama created all the conditions for the development and use of the personal potential of each person (as any member of the group and director).
— Facilitates communication between the participants, increasing the sense of trust and belonging to a group by using different techniques to help improve communication and understanding among all members of the group (for example, learning, sharing some experience of life, physical activity, which may include different options for tactile contact or non-verbal communication). The process of warming increases group cohesion, while allowing each of those present to get an idea about the advantages and characteristic features of the rest of the group.
Experienced director has a large repertoire of techniques heating. However, the Director may (use your creativity) to develop new techniques that can be particularly useful in the group with which it is currently operating.
Choosing the protagonist
Typically, after heating one or more participants clarify problems for itself (with varying degrees of confidence, and focus) that they would like to explore something during the session. At this important time of the decision concerning the choice of the role of the protagonist (in Greek — "the leading (or first) actor," "Prima"), participants should provide support. This is followed by a choice of one of the contenders for the role. Sometimes it is quite clear which of them is the top contender (one of the candidates on your emotional state more in line with that role than the others), but it can also happen that a few people warmed up enough. Then, using special techniques and director of the group choose one of the protagonist in the current session (for a particular candidate can vote in the group, applicants can decide among themselves which of them are at the moment more personal work is needed, the director can choose the party, which, In his opinion, there are more on the other corresponds to the role). Regardless of the method of selecting the protagonist is very important that he has received the endorsement and support of the group.
Now comes the time of the dramatic action, when the protagonist (with the support of the Director) has been researching the problems cleared up for him during the warm-up. For the production of the drama there is no pre-written script, in every moment of the dramatic action is manifested spontaneous creativity of the protagonist, auxiliary officers and directors. Typically, this stage PD process begins with the fact that the protagonist together with the director clarifies and clarify the theme that you are going to explore. Externally, the conversation between them resembles the conclusion of the contract. The first words of the protagonist should listen very carefully (eg, "I always have trouble with men," or "During the warm-up I remembered how I was upset last night, watching a TV show about sexual abuse"). "Contract" between the protagonist and the director can focus on a specific topic, which you can explore during this session.
At its core, psychodrama — stage process, therefore, the action quickly turns into a drama. The protagonist and the director of a joint decision with regard to the stage, which starts the drama, the protagonist, in accordance with its description proceeds to its construction (without decorations).
Director encourages the protagonist to action (reproducing past events, the protagonist speaks in the present tense), determines which actors from the protagonist's inner circle may be required for playing this particular scene (ie, parents, brothers, sisters, co-workers) and asks him to choose participants for all the participants of the role of the subsidiary entities that are most associated with them.
However, the director is possible (using your clinical experience) to move into the space of imaginary reality ("surplus reality"). In this space can unfold events that never occurred, and heard the words that still no one has ever heard of (for example, the experience of a human mother's care and attention during the psychodrama of action, whereas his childhood spent in the family, were filled with pain and despair associated with parental tyranny), or is playing situations that would never occur in the future (for example, when the protagonist is talking to his father, who died many years ago, and meets with the person with whom there is no possibility to enter into a closer relationship.
At the final stage of the psychodrama director may return the dramatic action to the real relations (in the scene where the events of the present day), it is the beginning of the session. As a result of contact with strong feelings, his experiences at some time in the past, the protagonist gets more information about their own behavior and borrowed it from the scenes of his past. This allows him to try out new behaviors and other options out of the impasse that is currently logged his attitude.
Schering is the last stage of the psychodrama group process, in which all team members are encouraged to share their feelings, and they noticed the similarity of their experiences and life situations with feelings and life experiences of the protagonist. It is important that the participants in the process of sharing agreement does not "interpret" the problems that are discovered in the behavior and emotional state of the protagonist, who, of course, at this point could be very vulnerable.
Based on the book of Paul Holmes, "Psychodrama: inspiration and technique"