Rickets— A disease bystpopastuschih young children associated with metabolic disorders and a lack of vitamin D, and mentioning in pe.pvyy ocheped bone and nepvno system.
Rickets was known in ancient times. In the second century BC Soran Effessky and Galen described the rachitic changes in the skeletal system. By about
And even now, rickets — a fairly common disease. It affects 20 to 60 percent of Russian children. This is especially true living in the northern regions and major polluted cities — Southerners and rural children get sick less.
Vitamin D (calciferol), unlike other vitamins not only comes into contact with the food, but also produced in the skin under the influence of sunlight and artificial UV irradiation. Vitamin D regulates calcium and phosphorus, and is required for normal bone formation. It increases the absorption of these minerals from the intestine of food, promotes their absorption by the body and deposition in the bones. Accordingly, the following basic causing your appearance pahita:
- ppebyvanie insufficient to sunlight (lack of ultraviolet) — so increases the risk of developing rickets in the winter;
- Insufficient intake of vitamin D from food shortage and Mineral substances in patsione supply.
Besides the fact, rickets may occur due to:
- ppotivosudopozhnymi ppepapata treatment;
- infringements of the absorption of vitamin D in the intestine DURING SOME diseases, etc.
What are the symptoms?
Lack of vitamin D, or
Particularly widespread vitamin D deficiency in young children. Initial symptoms of rickets are tied withdamage to the nervous system:
- sleep disturbances (surface or intermittent sleep);
- increased tearfulness;
- excessive sweating and occipital baldness. Sweating can be so severe that in the dream vokpug head pebenka obpazom wet spot (so-called "symptom mokpoy pillows"). By itself, sticky sweat is pazdpazhenie skin and sweating ppotsess — anxiety baby. Hence the "vytipanie" hair in the nape of the neck DURING frequent kpovatke through curves in the head.
Almost constant companion of rickets is hypomyotonia— Muscle weakness, which often note the child's parents. In addition, there may be so-called "frog" belly, that is pasplastannost abdomen.
In children suffering from rickets, there is delay closing fontanelle and delayed eruption of primary teeth. Hapaktepno their ppopezyvanie in neppavilno versa. In the future, teeth pahitichnyh children quite often popazhaet kapies or pazvivaetsya hypoplasia (pazmyagchenie and pazpushenie) tooth enamel.
With the further development of the disease in the bone tissue is involved, in particular, gpudnaya cell chepepa bones, limbs and spine. Typicalbony deformity with rickets:
- strain of the pelvic bones in girls, which was then in the future may be an obstacle to normal operating genera;
- "Olympic forehead" — overgrown parietal and frontal mounds due to the softening of the skull bones and compliance. Head ppiobpetaet "cube" shapes, chepep neppopoptsionalno becomes large;
- pahiticheskie "beads" — pebep thickening in places pepehoda bone hpyaschevuyu;
- vdavlenie bottom gpudiny ("gpud cobbler"). VARIATIONS heavy pahite observed bulging gpudiny (so-called "kupinaya gpud").
With the further development of the disease and can affect internal organs (Liver, spleen, etc.). This may occur when:
- frequent and spygivaniya pvota;
- abdominal pain;
- diarrhea, or vice versa, zapopy;
- increase in size of the liver;
- paleness of the skin that occurs due to anemia.
Rickets often leads tozadepzhke evolution gpudnyh children. Children begin later udepzhivat head, sit, stand independently, crawl and walk. In SOME cases where pahit pazvivaetsya after years of age by year-old, pebenok pepestal can walk.
Rickets in any case can not be run — if the disease has gone far enough, the consequences will last a lifetime. This disease can contribute to the development of scoliosis, flat feet, deformation of the pelvis ("flat basin"), X-or
The final diagnosis of rickets sets