All human life is built on the principle of interconnected worlds. These worlds are many, each of them has a special meaning. They may be isolated or located at the intersection, differ from each other or to be like. Together, they form a picture of a person's life. But in this set house occupies a central position.
According to the German philosopher Georg Simmel and cultural studies, the House — is part of life and at the same time a special way to connect, reflect, create life. Accomplishment of this is an act of great cultural women. In that he sees the main purpose of a woman, her contribution to the development of objective and real culture. Women's efforts to create a home as protection and support, as a habitat and the development of new generations, as the basis of an intimate and close relationship of love, friendship, hospitality, home and leisure, entertainment and leisure. Here, at last fully realized female essence, creating on his own project that expresses the idea of comfort, comfort, amenities, fine.
Moreover, Simmel compares house work culture in which sealed abilities, interests, feelings and intellect women. If a male house means a part of life, which in addition to its construction, it has yet to plant a tree and have a son, then home for a woman — especially formed integrity. The meaning of home is not limited to her individual goals, whether their children or life. He is self-sufficient for the woman and self-integrity and value, the center of its universe. And this knowledge is not acquired, it is not taught in the universities. Rather, it is from generation to generation inherits a subconscious level. So women in society in general, and in a separate house in particular is absorbing the public treasury, while the translator of moral values, preservation of the family secrets, the kind of national peculiarities.
Thus, the woman refers to the house as a sacred education. The house in its understanding involves not just the walls, and the space of its rich atmosphere it creates, and to which she directs. Everything that happens in the house depends on the woman.
This sacred bond between the woman and the house is well traced in mythopoetic representations of ancient Slavs. So, the house is conceptualized as "the world, adapted to the size of man and created his own." Housing was predominantly native feature "internal": they do not expose a person from troubles of the outside world, created an atmosphere of security, certainty, organization, and resist external chaos. Home compared with a mother who nourishes and protects the child and with the mother's womb, a hen protecting chickens. Closed, habitable space where dominated attributes home as bed, stove, heat, long conceptualized as a female, as opposed to uncomfortable cold outside world, in which the main role was played by a man — explorer, builder, conqueror. Constantly emphasize such features home as strength, stiffness ("upper room full of people"), animation. Man needs a home, connecting heaven and earth. He stands firmly on the ground and it is for the residents of the center-worldly, horizontal world. On the other hand, it rises above the earth, tends to the sky, he released a man outside and in this sense, is connected with the outside world and to the top. Therefore, the need to create in the home of a sacred space, reminiscent of the home organization and communication with the divine world order of security and protection from supernatural forces. If a man creates the material means of protection — wall and destroy … that woman is the source of spiritual, so to speak, creates an aura of individual housing, protects all the inhabitants of the space.
Russian people's ideas about the house in general coincide with the above. This was evidenced by the "Dictionary of the Russian Language" V. Dahl and the presentation of the many proverbs and riddles related to the house. "Nice for those who have a lot in the house," "House of conduct — not sandals weave", "Hoodoo be those who can not stay home," "On the side of mining, and do not leave the house" — that statements like those suggest that the house was considered by the people as a tangible embodiment, a relative, a safe space, and attached to it was considered a virtue. Dahl's dictionary notes that the word "home" means in Russian, not only the "building for housing," or "house with all neat and tidy and the economy," but also "family, family, owners with their families."
All the above stated view its roots sprouted in Russian culture and were fixed in the mind. As already mentioned, in Slavic mythology, a person is identified with its main creation, to create a home — like pregnancy and childbirth.
Consider these items in more detail.
The dominant feature women — human reproduction. That's building a house in the mythological consciousness comparable to the birth of life, above all, because they are associated with the emergence of new: new house, new baby. Birthing rituals aim to obtain the child from the sphere of nature and its inclusion in society, in the community of people, and in the construction of ritualism development of natural material is to create a cultural object — at home, in which the very process of socialization, and will be held.
The climax of the ceremony homelands — physiological birth. One of the methods by mothers is this: "Ordinary and very frequent reception at normal birth, in the supine or upright mothers — is thrown over board, ceiling or beam uterus rope, grasp her hands and heels resting on the bed or floor house , keep poluvisyachem position. Especially recommended this technique in a time when God will "forgive" woman in childbirth. " Some midwives have used this technique when taking birth protracted.
The climax of the ritual of building — laying Matica. It is believed that Matica — a key building block for the top of the home, the metonymic substitution of the house, in mythological terms, it duplicates the "world tree". The actions in the delivery ceremony symbolizes the journey of a woman at a child on the "world tree", they are similar to the actions of a carpenter in the rite lift Matica and comparable to traveling shaman "world tree" or cosmic rope in different worlds. Ritual journey carpenter by Matica focused on the acquisition of certain values: inclusion in the development of the human home space and giving its inhabitants wealth, contentment. In the above birthing ritual required for a child. Thus, the ritual hanging mothers to Matica based on the idea of inserting, when the beginning of a string of characters is the "world tree", and in the end — the offspring, the newborn child.
Laying Matica means creating homes and then held his dodelyvanie, dostraivanie. According to popular notions, the infant is born not completely formalized, "unfinished." Midwife and mother of the child to perform actions aimed at "turning" him in person, in particular the opening of his various organs, then the newborn acquires the ability to see, hear, speak, etc. in other words, a child is born "closed" to the outside world, and only after he had "discovered" human organs. That side of the house — a log house originally built solid, and only later they did the windows and doors, but after that the structure could be fully considered man's house: "Cutting through the windows and doors meet … ideas about the" discovery "of human bodies, providing the ability to see and go — the main features of a living person "
An interesting fact is that the terms of human life and is home to about the same, and our ancestors were designated a word "age", as you know, one of the uses of the word "age" — a century. Human life and the house fit in that time frame. A man who was approaching the age of one hundred years or exceeded it, saying that he "has outlived its time." And on the "age" — the term of human life and the house can be influenced in the direction of its increase or to decrease. If similar positive actions in the delivery and construction rituals aimed at ensuring the long life of the baby and the home and its inhabitants, the same malicious rituals aimed at the destruction of homes and the product of its owners.
SV Maksimov described the action of Vladimir Plotnikov, disgruntled owner for whom they were building a house. Constructing additions house, they pronounced negative conspiracy. Hewn logs are not along, and across, and then "let loose" on the house of worms that sharpened the wall. Shortly after the completion of the master of the house had died, after it fell apart and the very house. Another proof that the house and the people living in it, form one body. Negative impact on one of its components, leading to disease and further destruction of the system called "the house — the family."
Death of a man has long been associated with the destruction of the house or its most important parts: the "sudden destruction Matica foreboding owner, and ovens — the mistress." One of the signs of the death of a dream, in which the present image of the destroyed house. In addition, death foretold a dream in which the construction of a new dream home. Concepts that form the basis of beliefs, many meanings, one of which is based on the identity of the "new house" = "coffin." In addition, Russian, like many people of the world, there was a belief that the construction of a new home will result in death of its owner or builder. And all because of the man building a house, as it created its counterpart and handed him a piece of his own life force, leading to a shortening of his century — the allotted life span. To avoid this, it was necessary to bring the "construction sacrifice."
It should be noted that the roof, walls, doors, furnace, and other elements of the house with holes also have a women's semantics. Doors attached to the lower stratum. If the house — this is a woman's body, the doors — the female genitalia, especially the idea they have in common entry and exit. During a difficult birth opens the door, the woman was forced to step over the threshold. It should be added that all the time women gave birth at home, counting assistants native walls in this difficult and important matter. In the texts forth the issue of the connection, for example, in the mystery of the birth of the child: "What animal goes out the door, but the door is not included" in the maternity conspiracy: "Open up the gates of meat and bone, not to go to the prince and princess, and go nameless baby. " In the Russian tradition with the female are also connected to the window: "To facilitate delivery to the home previously opened slightly vents or windows to" open deck "
Windows — this "eye" of the house, commonly known etymology of the word "window" — the eye (eye). As the eyes, the windows associated with the concept of light and darkness, the visible and the invisible. The most important functions of windows, like eyes to perceive visual images of peace and light. In the window, as in the eye, can penetrate disease and death, particularly through foreign eyes. A knock on the window at midnight heralds death, this also shows a bird flew into the window. In an unfinished house has no windows, at the destroyed — clogged or broken window glass.
The lower boundary of the human body — the soles, heels. Heels, as the crown — the upper limit of the body, are the distal point and the entrance into the body. So, on the heels of infants put tar crosses, in order to "not one of them went Polunochnitsa." Besa, inspiring man drove through the heel: "In order to drive out the devil, to a person, the first time subjected to torture, cut left heel and clear flowing blood, which supposedly comes out and little demon." Sole word denotes not only the bottom of the shoe under the foot and the foot, but also the foundation, the base, the human foot is comparable to the lower part of the house.
The center of the human body in the vertical plane is the navel. Navel divides the body into a "clean" (top) and "evil" (lower) half, it is also the boundary between the two halves. Like the navel, Matica is the boundary between the top and bottom of the house, and — between the inner and outer parts of the house. The semantics of the term Matica (womb) — the center, the focus, the support. According to the beliefs of the Eastern Slavs, the navel — the main part of the body: "… a person is based on the navel." Matica played an important and constructive role in the home as a top home base, "Thin smyatka uterus around the house."
The navel is one of the entrances to the human body. Cutting the umbilical cord of the child, the midwife made some ritual actions (dressing his mother's hair, etc.) to the navel could never come loose. Navel and the umbilical cord connected to the idea of life and producing power, is the link between man and nature. On the umbilical cord also determined how many children will be in a woman: "How hryaschiki on the umbilical cord, the number of children a woman will" often hid the cord for Matica "to honor" of the child.
Matica, as navel and umbilical cord, embody the energy efficiency, especially feminine, riddle about Matica 'mother in the house, in the yard arm. " If the vertical partitioning Matica comparable to the navel, the horizontal — the internal female reproductive organs — the uterus, in which the birth and development of the fetus. Match the name of the body and the supporting beam ceiling — uterus, Matica. The word "uterus", along with the values, is set to start, the foundation, the source. Until the 18th century to mean «matrix» use the word womb, the womb. Perhaps the word "uterus" in the meaning of the female body appears as a later stage of the development value of the base, the beginning. The coincidence of the name element of design houses and female generative organs is not accidental. It is based on notions of similarity functions of this item in the house and in the body of a woman. Laying Matica comparable to one of the stages of labor: the emergence of the fetus from the uterus. The house was born just after the installation of Matica.
In the mythical code of the human body is the center of the heart (the division of the human body horizontally). The heart of man is like a stove in the house, for which, as we know, the next woman. In some dialects of heart combined with other internal organs — lungs and liver, called "cookies", root as the word "furnace". Essential feature of combining the "heart" and "furnace", — the connection with the fire, heat, heat. In folklore "hot heart, like" hot blood ", are indicators of a significant concentration of the life force in man, which is in the North Russian dialects is" the heat. " Heat, heat — signs of a living person, cold — dead. In riddles emphasizes precisely this trait oven: "In winter, all the eating," summer sleep, the body is warm and there is no blood. " Here, as elsewhere, the following function can be traced woman — the mistress. As you know, the stove, not only provides heat, creating a cozy home, which returns after numerous works and achievements, where you rest in body and soul, but also for food. And in the case of illness with maternal love oven also help to heal the wounds, no wonder the place on the stove in the house was given to the representatives of the older generation, and considered honorable.
In addition, the furnace is seen as a woman's body. First of all, this is reflected in the names of individual parts of the oven: man — opening of the Russian stove, hu — outer space before opening the mouth (of the mouth — the mouth) — a semi-circular hole in the oven, jaw — furnace, the sky — the top of the arch, cheekbones — furnace side, legs — side walls, etc. Most of the titles oven elements related to the name of the head and mouth, and his head is known metonymic substitution of the individual.
The mouth of the furnace is related not only with the mouth, but with the female vagina. For example, the angle of the furnace are washed in water and watered her pregnant woman, to give birth to as quickly as they fell out of the coal furnace. Difficult childbirth open damper in the furnace. In dialects raskutat word meaning "open stove or chimney" and "birth", "Baba raskutala, God forgive." A newborn baby was placed on the hearth furnace, which meant not only the idea of his house-spirit, but also simulate birth. On the "administration" in the oven as the new birth most clearly evidenced rite perepekaniya child with "dog's old age" — rickets. According to popular notions, the child was "not dopeksya" in the womb, and it planted a shovel or nochve in the oven. The symbolism of the rite "is based on the identification of the child and bread, bread and a baby in the world: it is as if returning to the womb (oven), to be born again."
Center of the human body as the center of the house, opposed the periphery. Both positive and negative values tend to move to the center. The house dust is blowing towards the stove to the house remained contentment. Blood moves through the veins to the heart. If the human body through natural agencies infiltrated disease, they wanted the blood to reach the heart, and if you get in it, the man died. Herbalist says plots to water or food with which they enter the bloodstream and move it toward the heart. Plots come to the fight and drive away from the heart, in the direction of the body to the periphery, and the distal point of the hole — the outside world. During the ritual treatment sorceress whispered conspiracies at the mouth of the furnace, and then she comes to the patient who is under the motitsey on the outside: the disease initially expelled from the interior of the home to the outside, and then through the door — in the world where the disease came. The wise woman pours water balances nagovorennoy over the threshold with the words: "Go, otkul come."