The development of a child’s speech from 0 to year

Language development: starting to build a dialogue.  Photo from http://creative.gettyimages.com

Your baby is still very tiny. At first glance, it seems that the development of speech too early to speak. What it meant, you say, if it can be heard only a resounding "y-a!"And in moments of calm and benevolent mood -" aga "yes" yeah ", not counting the other vague and unconvincing sounds. Many parents believe that before their child utters the first words (and usually it happens at the age of about a year) is useless to talk to him as he, they say, still does not understand anything, and yet can not learn.

However, the "unintelligible sounds" — is the formation of speech, and it starts long before the first word. And already at this very early stage is clearly visible primary function of speech — communication. Yes, yes, Your crumb is able and willing to communicate with you!

In order to represent, how to communicate with the baby, let's look at the main stage of the formation of speech.

The first stage — the scream

When a baby is born, getting from one medium to another, it needs to some a way to express themselves, their presence in this world. While the child was in the mother's abdomen, all his needs are met instantaneously. Now he sometimes feels some discomfort — and shouts (not yet at the level of unconditioned response). When a child needs are met, the child is formed by a certain pattern of behavior, and the cry is a signal of discomfort (wet, you want to eat or sleep, sad, lonely). Means the child has only one — a scream. Gradually, with the cry of a baby learns to not only attract attention, but also to communicate. Remember, when your kid is calling you, he yells at first, and then waits for a response: Mom will or will not come? Then he shouts louder and waits again. So the child allows his "companion" to engage in their first conversation.

Around the third month (and many kids and much earlier) changes and intonation screams. Attentive mother can pick out so many different cries of his child — it can be a nagging, nagging dissatisfaction, a sharp yelp of pain, angry, "shouts."

"Even when you are in another room, I can almost certainly screams determine what is happening with my twins. When they quarrel and can not share toys — one cry when they're bored — a cry quite different. And, of course, I always distinguish shrill and sharp "dangerous screams" (when an urgent need to run to the rescue) from the "non-hazardous" when children are simply expressing their discontent. "

Creek is present in a child for a long time, evolving in parallel with the speech. And even when there are real, "adult", the words, the cry continues to play in communicating a very important role.

The second stage — the cooing

Cooing usually occurs between the ages one or two months and is accompanied by a child in the first six months of life. This is usually different variations of sounds: and-a-gu, gee s, ge-e, a-gee etc. It is interesting that infants of different nations gulyat same. Gradually the repertoire is enriched with new baby sounds, there are also new tone. In Gulen, like crying, too important moment of interaction. Of course, the kid can gulit and left alone in the room. But with the advent of your cooing becomes more active. If you look closely to the child, you will see that he is not just making noises. The kid in this time looks you in the eye, waiting for your answer, it is trying to build a full voice dialogue. And this dialogue must always support! Indeed, during the cooing baby learns to coordinate simultaneous voice and the look that would later become the basis of any social contact.

The kid is seeking your attention and communication ancient as the hills, the carrot and stick method, but instead he uses the whip crying, and instead stick — a charming and joyful smile.

Answer your child's language, strongly supports and encourages its first "performance". He will be very happy to bring to your attention — look how he reaches out to you, trying to add a sponge to adequately respond to such an important interlocutor! Gradually, the child begins to pronounce the long chain of sounds, as if imitating himself. Moreover, he tries to imitate you as well!

The kid in this age of first trying to feel the sounds and words. While it is important for not only the meaning of words, how many different intonation, rhythm of speech, articulation of different sounds.

"My daughter at the age of four months, was feeling the hands of my mouth whenever Ianything she said. A feeling that she wants to see how it turn out different sounds and trying to catch a departing words, contrary to the well-known proverb about the word and the sparrow. Once in my speeches, there is a pause, baby immediately begins to actively respond to me. "

The third stage — babble

With the development of the child cooing dies down, and replaced comes babble. This typically occurs at the age of 6-7 months. Your baby starts to pronounce certain syllables "ba", "ma", "ta" and so forth — at first only once, very rarely, and as if by chance. Gradually the syllables heard in his speech all the more often they are repeated in the form of chains: ba-ba-ba-ba ma-ma-ma-Ma.

Cooing and babbling is very important for the further development of speech. If they are not your baby, try to activate them.

Holding the baby in his arms so he could see the movement of your lips, repeat the different syllables, rhythmic sing songs, read poems are simple, and most importantly — how can you talk more with the baby. He needs to hear adult speech. However, it must not only calls that are grown together, and speech, directed specifically to it, a child.

"My son is now 6 months old. He distinguishes different voices at the hearing. If I talk to him, hiding behind a diaper, he begins to smile happily and look where that had happened to my mother. And one day he heard a voice from the hallway of another uncle — it was a deep bass, quite unlike my father's voice — heard a loud burst into tears. "

"My ten-Dashunya loves to" read "books — the most traditional Russian fairy tales for the little ones," Gingerbread Man "," turnip "," Chicken Ryaba. " Yet she loves the conversations on the topic: who like talking. The variations are endless — from pussy toLarge-the-go truck or engine. "

Again, even if you think that the child babbles for himself, though he is very committed to communicating with you. First bubbling words, syllables yet do not carry a meaningful sense. But it was the mother who hears these words of syllables, babble filled with meaning.

"Surprisingly, the syllables"ma-ma"Fyodor began talking to the early days. Of course, at first he was crying. But slowly, he realized that his "ma-ma"I was particularly touched by this, especially since everyone was talking about — my mother is calling.

By six months of this "mother" does not mean the beginning of "Come near to me," and "Give me here MOM." In the eight months he was clearly speaking to me, and called me, being in the hands of others, and there was no doubt that this is the most real word. "

Lesson or communication?

Of course, when dealing with a child, we somehow learn it. But try to make your desire to teach the kid literally from the cradle not overshadowed him more important things — liv
e your emotional communication.

If you follow the theories of early development, surely you on hearing the name of an American scholar Glenn Doman, who claimed that, being from a very early age in a special learning environment, a child can reach a very high intellectual results. In its Institute of Child Development Doman conducted a number of experiments, which essentially boiled down to the following. Infants from two months of age, when they start to focus glance at a fast pace showed different cards with images of letters, words, musical notes, numbers, pictures, characters, and much, much more. During a teacher or mom called corresponding subject. First, these "lessons" lasted 5-10 minutes, then gradually increased their duration.

When the kids are grown up, it turned out that's what. They really had to memorize the information possessed foreign languages to read, count, etc. But this is not entirely the kids played, they had broken the emotional sphere. Accustomed to passively swallow teaching material, they have sought to stimulate the knowledge of the outside world, was the work available to them, because they had no real creative experience. And the huge store of knowledge that kept them clingy child's memory, they are not always able to put into practice. It is sad that the violations of the emotional sphere, these children were already irreplaceable. After all, many very important milestones emotional development is laid in infancy, when the child is willing and able to communicate, build social behavior, and not to fix in his mind countless dry facts.

In my psychology practice, Andrew was a boy who could not adequately communicate with their peers. He ran around in a circle, constantly repeating the same phrase. At the same time, he had very big problems with the articulation of sounds: sounds of fourteen he was five years old just uttered, so that you can understand it was with great difficulty. He preferred to communicate in writing.

It turned out that my mother Andryushina once very fond of early intellectual development of his son. As a result, he learned to read before you speak. However, he was not playing, practicing numbers, letters, special cards, drew only maps.

Being accepted as an infant to teach your child the letters on developing new-fangled method, be careful! Some children who were taught to read, for example, cubes Zaitsev before they started talking, there was a delay in speech development. Rather than engage in lively interaction, they read and write with the help of cubes.

Stage Four — the first words

So, from the babble word is born …

At this point (usually starts at11-12 months) is very important to help the child in his word creations. It is now a baby begins to associate words with objects of the environment, the words filled with meaning for him. Now you can extend your repertoire of reading aloud. Try to call a spade a spade around (not "put this thing in-one there ", and" put the doll in the crib "). Do not forget to comment on their actions when you are with your child.

Speech therapists advise to train the muscles of the lips and cheeks. To do this, please be different whistles, harmonica, toy flute and teach kids to blow into these tools. Useful and blow bubbles (but will always have to make sure that the child does not drink soapy water).

Another fun way to train the muscles of the lips and cheeks — it pogrimasnichat with the baby. Feel free to build funny faces expressively portray a variety of emotions (surprise, fear, joy) sticks out his tongue licking their lips. You will see your baby will love this new game, and soon it will start to repeat after you some movement.

Usually, the kids love the sounding toys. Take advantage of this, let the kid learns to extract a variety of sounds and play back their voice. His first words are onomatopoeic, "bang", "boom", "bowwow"" Bibika ". Do not be afraid of the infant, "lyalskih" (says my eldest daughter) words. This is a very important moment in the development of speech. The child is difficult to associate an abstract word (for example, dog, car, dropped) With a specific object or action. If the word is even somehow like the object or effect, such a link is much easier to install (for example, the dog says "av-av"Machine -"bi-bi"And falling object makes a" boom "). Infant words help the child to go to normal, "adult" speech.

When your baby will try to repeat after you some words, it is possible to read poetry "for his roles." For example, the well-known poem about the desperate geese (his start as a rule, remember all):

  • Adult: Geese geese!
  • Child: Ha-ha-ha!
  • Adult: Are you hungry?
  • Child: Yes, yes, yes!
  • Adult: Bread and butter?
  • Child:No, no, no.
  • Adult: And what are you?
  • Child: Candy!
  • Adult: Well, fly as you want, tnly the wings take care — withery wolf under the mountain will not let you go home. Fly-fly (A child waving his hands) on the head and sat down.

When you read to your baby the familiar poems or sing songs at the end of lines, pause, the child was able to finish the line itself.

It is especially important to talk to your baby while you play. Do not forget that the game is focused on dialogue, not on your monologue. You can, for example, roll the ball to each other, the comments accompanying this lesson: "Give me the ball! Ball rolled to my mother. " Soak a break, give your child the opportunity to engage in conversation. "And now — on the ball! Rolled the ball to the kids " etc. Try to match the mood of the game and the state of your crumbs.

Words and gestures

Facial expressions, gestures, tone of helping people to communicate with others. Please note — adults in conversation with each other a lot of information transmitted through facial expressions and gestures (which is why many people find it difficult to talk on the phone, although they easily lead the conversation during a private meeting). But for young children non-verbal communication is even more important, because at some point for them is the only way to "talk" to you.

It is very useful to reinforce certain words with gestures. First, a child learns to play the gesture, and then — repeats the word. For example, the word "give" is usually accompanied by such a gesture: to lend a hand, palm up, and repeatedly bend and straighten your fingers. Then you should often use the word "give", "fetch", "take", ask the child to perform simple requests. You'll see, it will be very glad to help you!

Similarly, you can teach a kid to other expressive gestures, such as "Ladushki", "Goodbye", "Show me how big you are (or large)" affirmatively or negatively to shake his head. Feel free children's gestures, for example, of showing the finger, but on the contrary, help the child to master them.

Gestures can carry and emotion.

"Olezhka recently learned how to show what a sour tomato, and what a sweet raspberry. When you ask him, "What is a tomato?" He wrinkles his nose hilarious, all kind showing aversion to the hated food. On the same question: "What is th
e raspberry?" Child breaks into a beatific smile and smacked his tongue. Of course,some now we have taught him that, but now he often portrays sometaste and without our request. For example, if you say that lemon — sour, Olezhka certainly wrinkled. "

"Maruse have shown that you can smell the flowers. Now when any flower (on a bed, in a pot or in the book), she reaches for his nose and sniffs it in ecstasy. "

Gestures child can accompany your reading of poetry or singing.

For example:

  • I'm playing on a violin — Styles-Is, Styles-Is, (Kid holding an imaginary violin and "plays" on it)
  • Bunny dancing on the lawn — Styles-Is yesStyles-Is ("Dancing", turns the raised handles).
  • And then on the drum — bam-bam-bam, bam-bam-bam (A child knocks on the palmssome surface)
  • In fear hare ran through the bushes! (Hides her face in the palms).

Or this:

  • Bruin Bear goes through the woods (A child swinging, legs wide apart)
  • Cones collects, singing songs (Leans over an imaginary cone).
  • Suddenly a bear just fell bump on the forehead (Slaps his forehead).
  • Angry bear, and his foot — top (Kid stomping foot).

Or this:

  • Zainka poplyashi, a gray, poplyashi. Here so that way- poplyashi, here so that way- poplyashi (Child, "dancing").
  • Zainka stamp your foot, a gray, stamp your foot, that's so that way- stamp your foot, that's so that way- stamp your foot (Stamps of one or the other leg).
  • Zainka to clap her hands, a gray, clap her hands in, that's so that way- to clap her hands, that's so that way- clap her hands in (Toddler claps his hands).
  • Zainka bow, a gray, bow, here so that way- worship, that so that way- Worship (Bows).

You can beat and "Toys" Agnes Barto. Kid shows how rocks goby on shaky board like crying bitterly girl, Tanya, pity the poor and strokes bear with a torn paw.

Incidentally, the famous finger-game at the same time train the child and "speaking gestures," and fine motor skills, which is also very useful for the development of speech.

Here, for example, the game "Cabbage":

  • We have a cabbage, here it is, cabbage (Show what a big cabbage)
  • We cut the cabbage, cut (Edge of his hand, like a knife, knocking on the table)
  • We cabbage three, three (Rubs his palms)
  • We cabbage Mnemonic, Mnemonic (Figure out how Mnemonic cabbage cams).

But Finger Massage game similar to the famous "Magpie-magpie"- Pancake machine:

  • Mary became a call (Stroking the open palm of the baby)
  • And Ivan, come, and Stepan, come, and Andrew, come, and Sergei, come, (Alternately bend the fingers, since a lot)
  • And Nikita — well, please! (Bend the little finger, after patting it).
  • Mary became a treat: Ivan and pancake pancake and Stepan, and Andrew pancake pancake and Sergey (Unbend fingers, flexing pads — "giving away pancakes")
  • and Nikita — mint pryanichek! (Unbend little finger, also pre-stroking).
  • Mary has become a escort: Ivan and farewell, and Stepan, good-bye, and Andrew, good-bye, and Sergei, farewell! (Each finger in turn bent and unbent — as in a gesture of "good-bye")
  • and Nikita — well, stay still! (Affectionately stroked the little finger).

These games will help your kid to enrich the vocabulary words and relate with quite specific actions or objects.

About salty porridge

Remember the famous anecdote about a boy who five years did not say anything? He could not help no medical luminaries and the most famous speech therapists. But one day, at breakfast the boy suddenly said, "Aporridge, then Today too salty! "Happy parents rushed to congratulate each other, and when calmed down, asked his son," What did you say so before? ". To which the boy replied, "And before it was all right."

Joking aside, when parents are too well aware of the child without a word, he simply does not need to convey to them some message. Perhaps there may have to cheat a little, pretending that you do not understand what is expected of you wants a child as long as he does not try to tell you about it.

Alina two years did not say anything but "yes" and "no." I was beginning to worry about this, and suddenly found myself on the fact that all the questions I formulate it so that they can have a clear answer "yes" or "no." When I began to ask more complex questions, as if not knowing her daughter, and she has a lot more new words.

If a child communicates with you by babbling, gestures, his first words about will appear. Do not worry if this happens later than you think you should. Do not compare your child with a neighbor girl, a friend's son and niece of your colleagues! The development of each individual child can have their own individual characteristics.

However, there are some important milestones in the development of your baby's speech, which you should pay particular attention to:

  • Creek, which at first is a reaction to discomfort (hunger). Too quiet and the most comfortable baby — it's not so good as it sounds.
  • The complex animation (smile revival) with the appearance of adult (appears in1-3 months).
  • Cooing. How and when did your baby coo? He looks at it with your eyes, "sings" a song their infant while in your hand, do you feel it need to communicate?
  • Babble (appears in6-10 months), the child is clearly attracted attention by some sounds.
  • Pointing gesture (appears in8-13 months). This is a very important moment in the development of the child prior to the appearance of the first words since before the item name, your child should learn how to show it.
  • The emergence of major social gestures, such as "good-bye" (9-12 months).
  • Understanding and implementation of simple requests, the appearance of elementary story games (to feed a doll). This stage usually takes a child at the age of about one year.

Inessa Smyk, Daria Golubeva

According to the magazine "Aistenok", 03.04

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