The development of a child’s speech from 1 to 2 years

I want to say how many or on the development of speech.  Photo from http://creative.gettyimages.com

Your kid has just celebrated its first birthday. A new stage in his, and in your life. In the literature on psychology and pedagogy usually gives details about the first year of life, because that's when there are the most significant changes in child development, and then — about three years old, it was in three years is a famous psychological crisis. But the period from one year to two years is not as important in the development of the individual.

The kid has a lot can understand, but for now it is very difficult to express in words my thoughts and desires. And how much I want to say! Help him. To do this purposefully engaged in the development of their speech tot. The better you understand each other, the less the baby will be cause for moods and tantrums.

Let's see how it develops at this age.

Stage One: The first words

From a year and a half before the baby starts to move around very active in space and accumulate new experience. This experience is necessarily reflected in speech development.

Usually, the first words appear at the age of 9.5 months — 1 year and 6 months. Most often, they represent the closest people: mom, dad, woman, uncle, aunt. It is easy to kid plays and onomatopoeic words: av-av (The dog) tick-tock (Hours) moo-moo (Cow), etc. Often, instead of a child utters the word or syllable initial (toinstead of cat or borax instead of Cheburashka). But because these "words" denote specific things and are pronounced in a certain situation (at the sight of a cat or Cheburashka), we can call them words, not random syllables.

It is noticed that some children are more "love" nouns denoting objects and people, and others — prefer verbs associated with social interaction — "Go away", "want", "give", etc.

The first words are widely generalized value. However, this is not what a generalization to which we are accustomed to calling a doll, bear and ball toys. Child while highlights some one sign, and brings it on all sorts of things. For example, the word "yum-yum»Year-old child is any food or dishes, from which it is fed. Hungry, he, too, cried "Yum-yum!"(= I want to have!), And when he saw the teenager in the street, chewing gum, comments:"yum-yum"(= Eat).

Little Liza word "inherited" (moon) called all items rounded — browns, round spots on the window glass circles in the books, the postmarks on the envelopes, round embossed frame on book bindings, the letter "O". And Fedor decided to compile sounding items. The word "co-co"That is first in his vocabulary meant rooster crowed, Fyodor began calling sounds of the violin, piano, accordion, all kinds of music and musical toys. Generalising the principle may be, and texture: the word "bowwow"Katyusha called not only the dog, but also all the cuddly animals, plush slippers and even a photograph of an old man in a fur coat.

"Y?"

During the same period, children are very fond of her finger to show they are interested in the subject with a question word "s?". Often parents is annoying, they believe that the so behave indecently. But such a gesture is very important for the development of speech! In no case do not forbid it, and, moreover, help the crumbs to master such a gesture if necessary.

The famous Russian psychologist Vygotsky believed that the pointing gesture was originally just a failed or incomplete grasping motion. "The child is trying to grab too distant object, his hands outstretched to the subject, are hanging in the air … There is movement, objectively indicating the subject, and nothing more. But when his mother comes to the aid of the child and interprets it as an indication of the movement, the situation has changed. Pointing gesture becomes a gesture for others. "

Thus kid makes a surprising discovery: the all-around has its own name — every, every thing! "Y?" With pointing gesture — it's greedy question, "What is it?" This is — a cat, and this — the house, and it is — a big dump … Passive vocabulary (ie words that the child understands, but can not reproduce itself ), each time becoming richer andsometime certainly turn from a passive to an active (active vocabulary — these are words that a child utters).

The tactics of your actions

As before, the main thing — communicate with your baby! Catching his keen eye, or pointing gesture, name objects that surround you, comment on their actions. Do not hesitate to speak out and on the street — your crumbs are very important to hear from you what is happening in the sandbox, where passers-by in a hurry, and the color of the dress in that beautiful aunt.

Try to keep your comments were not only sound, but had some reinforcement in the bodily sensations, movement. Kid better remember the word "tree" if touched the rough bark of palm, the word "handkerchief" — when he tries to tie a scarf on the doll word "Bell" — if pozvenit this bell.

Try to "represent" the child a new word in a variety of combinations with other words and objects. For example, showing milk, show how it looks in the glass or in the pan in which you are going to cook porridge. Comment on their actions, "Mother pours milk into a glass", "white milk, delicious", "drink milk", etc.

It is useful to consider and address not only a variety of items, but also pictures with their image. After all, at this age kids are already pretty well identify the object and its image. Compare the real thing with pictures. What are the similarities, what are the differences? For example, when he saw a magazine photo of the girl in a red cap, get the crumbs of his hat and compare: "The girl's hat, and Alyosha's hat. The girl's red hat, and Alyosha — yellow, "etc.

The first generalization

Gradually the baby establishes a relationship not only between the subject and the particular word, but also between other such items and the word. How does this happen?

For example, an experiment that was conducted by psychologists with young children.

The experiment involved two groups of children aged 1 year to a year and3-x months. In the first group, each child within two months, almost every day 10 times for five seconds showed an unfamiliar subject — The book and said: "The book! The book! "Children always up look and turned his head toward the subject. During the observation period, this reaction was repeated 500 times.

The children of the second group also used the same book, but under the guidance of an adult child with her producing a variety of actions. "This book," "Open Book", "Close your book!" Etc. The kids were given a total of 20 different teams, each of which included the word "book", and each required a specific motor response. These motor reactions were repeated only 50 times on record.

Then, both groups were control tests conducted. During these tests, the child lay out the many different items: cubes, dolls, toy animals, a few books, which differ in size, thickness, color, cover, and so turned to the adult child, saying, "Give me the book!" It was important to find out which book choose a child. Only that he had seen before, or any other, combining the concept of objects "book"? Children in the first group took only one book — the one they saw in the previous two months, and gave her the experimenter. When they were asked to take another book, or they took the first available object (it could be a doll, rabbit, etc.), or did not do anything. Hence, for this group of children the word "book" remains the nam
e of one particular subject and summarizing values are acquired. So that a large number of repetitions, even while clearly display the corresponding object is not conducive to the development of generalization.

And so — learn crumbs act with various objects, calling aloud necessarily those actions. The same book can bring a doll show, open, close, scroll, put on a chair, to find in it an interesting image, etc. More often refer to a baby with a variety of simple requests. He will be very glad to help you, but at the same time enrich your vocabulary and get a first experience of generalization.

Nursery rhymes and nursery rhymes

A variety of nursery rhymes and nursery rhymes insome sense — the ideal first literary texts, which the child perceives literally mother's milk. After all, it describes the real life experiences, the world around us, commented on various natural phenomena, etc. In this case, a clear rhythm and melodiousness nursery rhymes help your child easily learn new concepts and sometimes do things that are not very desirable, but necessary. For example, you can wash under a nursery rhyme:

  • Vodicka, Vodicka, wash Van (Masha) face,
  • To cheeks flushed to glazonki shone
  • To laugh rotok to nip clove.

At the same time hold the first lesson on the structure of the body, and show where we face, cheeks, eyes, rotok and clove. Then, after washing, you can repeat a nursery rhyme, this time depicting how to wash, do not forget about the eyes either, nor about the cheeks.

Your kid — a light eater, and feed him — the whole problem? May come to the aid of another nursery rhyme:

  • Crumpet, tortilla in the oven sat staring at us — in the mouth wanted.

Or this:

  • Oh, I'll bake a cake Tanya,
  • Since I granddaughter rosy.
  • It wheat crust,
  • A nachinochka egg,
  • A pomazochka honey,
  • My granddaughter mischievous.
  • These nursery rhymes can be read while eating.
  • Putting on the crumbs shirt, saying:
  • Agashka aunt, sew me a shirt:
  • It is necessary to dress up a meal ride!

The story and nursery rhyme about natural phenomena. For example, on the rain:

  • Rain, rain, forest!
  • Let us give you a thick,
  • Let us give you a spoon:
  • Slurp little bit of everything!

A prolonged rain try to "get rid of" a nursery rhyme:

  • Rain, rain,
  • Enough to pour,
  • Small detushek wet!

In the nursery rhyme, and highlights new skills toddler, for example, the mastery of walking:

  • Kate, Kate, Little,
  • Katya udalenkie,
  • Pass on the Path that,
  • Homotopic, Katya, legs hurt.

Or:

  • Zainka, hiking,
  • A gray, hiking,
  • That's it, that's syak resemble
  • That's it, that's syak like!

The first step, of course, it is impossible to imagine without the numerous falls and injuries. Stroke the injured spot, saying:

  • The cat pain
  • The dog pain,
  • And Andrei's not pain,
  • We Andrei pain on birch fly away.

In this kind of nursery rhymes is, among other things, and a deep sense of psychotherapy. They allow you to get away from the pain, so — take the stress that is associated with pain. Such psychological treatment is quite effective for the baby.

By the way, did you know that most, perhaps, the famous Finger game "Forty to forty"Did not end rocking slacker-pinky:

  • You're not chopping firewood,
  • Water did not wear
  • You will have no cereal.

The game has a sequel. Adult says:

  • He went to look for:
  • Here Vodicka holodnenky (stroking the baby's wrist)
  • Here lukewarm (stroking her elbow),
  • It Hot (patting his shoulder)
  • And here — the boiling water, boiling water, schekotok! (Adult amuses children under the arm)

After all, the meaning of the nursery rhyme, not only in the development of fine motor skills. It gives the child the joy of body contact, the ability to feel your fingers, elbow, shoulder, in the end — to form an idea of your body.

There is a special nursery rhymes and to put a child to sleep. They can become part of your ritual, which prepares the baby to sleep. For example, you can put in a crib toy fluffy kitten who would be "cradle" of his small owner:

  • Come, kotenka-Kotok,
  • Come, greyish hvostok,
  • Come, kitty, sleep,
  • Come play with Dasha.
  • I really like you, a cat,
  • Pay for the work:
  • 'll Make a new coat
  • And will order boots.

Stage two: the first sentences

In fact, the first sentence, as strange as it sounds, have been concluded already in single words. After all single words for a kid — it's a whole different set of ideas. For example, the word "mother" spoken in different situations, with varying intonation and accompanied by various gestures can mean: "I want to mom", "Mama, tie my shoelace," or "That's my mom." Baby found on the floor of a beautiful buttons, picked her up and invited her mother to admire, "Mom! Mom! "And when he fell, in his plaintive whining sounds too"Ma-ma-a-eh! "

However, after your baby turns one and a half years, you're likely to hear from him first "real" ice, "Mom, give me" or "Dad, go!" Etc. Approximately 1 year 8 months — 1 year 10 months pipsqueak well absorbed imperative verb and plural forms, and to two years — case forms of nouns (though this process is finally completed by3-4 years).

In girls, the compound words in the phrase is somewhat earlier in boys — ontwo or three months later. After the first phrase is uttered, speech development is usually very rapidly. Almost every day you can hear from all the new baby and new phrases. However, keep in mind that pipsqueak, as always, is in need of your attention and response. If the answer is no or one-word, and he is not emotional, the interest in speech activity is lost, and the development slows down.

It is important to show your child that you understand it, and to "translate" his first clumsy phrases on a regular, proper adult language.

Here's an example. Mom in the kitchen preparing dinner. Kid watching her sitting on a highchair.

"But" — says pipsqueak saw the knife that my mother is going to cut vegetables. "Yes, this is a knife" — agrees mom.

"Root" — adds a child.

"The Big Knife" — "translate" Mom, quietly connecting the two word phrase, and adds: "The big knife will cut the cabbage." This "translation" will contribute to a rapid and successful mix of words in a sentence.

Do not be afraid "wrong" infantile words, they will sometime become "real." Rate attempted child, although still not very successful, to share experiences with you. This will give him confidence and a sense of being understood.

Game story and it

It happens that the kid at the age of one to two years, and does not talk at the same time does not matter. In this case, first of all, try to teach him to play.

At first glance it seems that the story game has nothing to do with the development of speech. However, in reality this is not true. Year-old child with a
speech not only tells about their desires and concerns, he is also trying to share their experiences with adults. So when the kid shows a finger at the car, he wants to say, "I saw the car, and you look at her!" But in order to call some objects that a child needs to memorize them. And, remember not as abstract concepts, but as experienced first hand. And this will help him simple casual game — feed the doll, put her to sleep, sing a lullaby to her, walk with her on the track. With the help of real, simple action game in the kid is working his experience and expertise in this speech is attached. If the earlier a child seems not to notice what he was doing, he now pays special attention to the actions. Therefore, action games, repeating the actions of the child, it is necessary to comment: "Bunny walking, jumping, digging shovel." Show your child how to play with a certain toy, and soon he will repeat your game stories.

You can write and show your child simple and short scenes with toys. For example, the bear fell down and began to cry, or a doll lost and looking for his ball. Ask your child to help his little friends.

The same nursery rhymes and nursery rhymes, which we discussed above, you can play with the toys. For example:

  • Big feet were walking along the road:
  • That op-on, is-O-op, is-O-op, is-O-op (Pronounced slowly, in a low voice).
  • Little feet running down the track:
  • Top-top-top is-O-op (Pronounced high-pitched voice and quickly).

Compare the leg and foot adult baby, show how someone walks. Now find two similar toys of different sizes (two bears, bunnies and dolls), to build them out of blocks different tracks (wide and narrow), and let your toy characters that walk slowly, then quickly. See how much a child learns the concepts of such nemudrenoy fun: big, small, slow, fast, wide, narrow!

Nimble fingers

Training of fine movements of fingers has a great influence on the development of an active child's speech. This phenomenon is well-known psychologists and speech therapists. And they keep saying how important it is to develop fine motor skills. This will help and a variety of finger games, and manipulation of the paper (you can tear to pieces, crush, crumple), anduntwisting-twisting lids on cans and bottles.

As always, the inexhaustible resource in this respect — the usual kitchen. My child, for example, liked to hide small toysKinder Surprise in a bowl of dry peas or lentils, and then find them by touch (be careful inKinder Surprise often come across small parts, which, of course, the baby can not be given). Sweetpea gently massage the little fingers, and the crumb gets a lot of pleasant tactile sensations. Try it yourself!

You can draw fingers on a tray on which a thin layer of flour sprinkled on or semolina. You can play with cotton buds, one pulling them out of the jar, and then thrusting back. You can hitch a colorful clothespins on a plastic jar or box, and then unhook them and throw in the same bank.

Take a look around and maybe you'll find a new interesting and useful entertainment for their remains.

The kid does not say. What to do?

In talking about the development of speech from 0 to 12 months, we have already talked about the fact that you have to be careful with the now fashionable in the early training. This applies to the age of one to two years. Sometimes parents literally from the cradle to begin to introduce your baby with geometric shapes, letters, numbers, forgetting about the real, living things and situations surrounding the child. After all the letters and numbers — an abstraction that can only be a result of long experience, and his child does not like and there is no physiological possibilities for this level of abstraction.

His brain is not yet ripe for such actions. As a result of early learning speech development of the baby loses its pledged nature of the course. In this case it is necessary to time to break away from the many squares and complex intellectual programs. Go for a walk, play, let your communication will be lively and emotional. For a kid now it is more important than all the new-fangled methods of early intellectual development.

If a two-year your child began to speak, first of all, try to find out whether he tries to communicate some in other ways — through gestures, intonations, "gibberish" language. In this case, the first "real" words are likely to about will appear. If the baby does not attempt to establish contact with the outside world, often parents notice and other characteristics of the child: he plays in the same formulaic games, repeating stereotyped movements do not always respond to his name, no eye contact, not responding to a number of calls to him questions, do not feel your condition. Often these children it is difficult to develop and too late. Particular attention should be paid if the earlier a child was trying to communicate with you and the other children, and then suddenly stopped doing it.

In this case, do not delay, contact a good psychologist.

Good luck and patience, and soon you'll be driving with her baby quite meaningful dialogue.

Inessa Smyk

According to the magazine "Aistenok"

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