Even the ancient Greeks, describing the seven wonders of the world, always the number one miracle, miracle of miracles called the Egyptian pyramids. About any monument of antiquity is not written as much about the pyramids. It is about the three largest of these, and especially about the pyramid of Cheops. But even on a conducting several centuries of research and excavations, despite an avalanche of vysokouchenyh works, and today no one knows exactly who, how, when and why to build these giant structures.
In orthodox Egyptologists, however, a different view on this. It lies in the fact that "the pyramids were tombs of the Pharaohs and nothing more," as stated categorically in the 30-ies of XX century Englishman Wallace Budge. Supporters of the version of "tombs and tombs only" try "to ignore" the ever-increasing amounts of data that are contrary to this view, often under the pretext that these data were obtained by "non-experts", that is, not by professional Egyptologists.
So, it is generally accepted that the three major builders of the pyramids of ancient Egyptian pharaohs were IV Dynasty of the Old Kingdom (2575-2467 BCE) Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure (the Greeks pronounced these names as Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus). For the first time this opinion was expressed by the Greek historian Herodotus (V century BC) refers to the stories of the Egyptian priests. It should be said that the opinion of Herodotus in ancient times was by no means universally accepted. Thus, no less authoritative ancient historian Pliny the Elder (I century AD) wrote about the three pyramids:
"In general, it is unclear by whom they were built. The case — the most fair judge — ordered that their creators have sunk into obscurity. "
By the way, the Great Soviet Encyclopedia article on Herodotus, with the following note:
"Data reported by G. is not always reliable, because it is widely used in myths and legends."
Prior to the first third of the XIX century is no evidence to support the view of Herodotus, was not. The fact that the considered three pyramids are different from all other ancient Egyptian pyramids that were built both before and after these pharaohs, the complete absence of any archaeological finds, that would confirm the authorship of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. They did not find any of these mummies of pharaohs, or any object (even their fragments!), No inscriptions.
The latter is particularly surprising. Suppose, archeologists believe, tombs were robbed in antiquity. But why there are no labels? After all, the rest of the tomb of ancient Egyptian rulers have rich wall paintings and texts that tell about the brave deeds of a pharaoh containing religious spells that were designed to help the dead king, a journey into the world of the immortal gods. Why only these three pyramids of the pharaohs of the Old Kingdom are the exception?
"Silence," the largest of the Great Pyramids, over, according to all the books on Egyptology in 1837. Then, an amateur archaeologist, a retired colonel of the British colonial troops Howard Weiss, have found in one of the farthest cubbyhole this gigantic number of "stamps masons", confirming that the pyramid of Khufu built it. Because this finding is consistent with the opinion of Herodotus, it was immediately announced that the Great Pyramid was built at the behest of Khufu as his tomb, and the other two, of course, is the tomb of Khafre and Menkaure. However, some of the circumstances surrounding this discovery cast doubt on its authenticity. In the words of one of then a journalist, "the whole thing from the very beginning was accompanied by a fishy smell …".
Having achieved the English governor-general of Egypt (firman) of the right to conduct archaeological excavations, G. Weiss in 1837, held a series of barbaric "research" in the Great Pyramid, prolamyvayas with explosives passages in her column on the "King's Chamber". Above this camera seventy years before Weiss archaeologist N. Davison found walled up the room, which he called the "chamber of rest," in which, as in all other areas of the Great Pyramid, there were no objects or inscriptions. Weiss with gunpowder penetrated were located one above the other four similar hermetically walled chamber. In them he found deposited in red paint on the walls of the hieroglyphic inscriptions, presumably made by masons in the quarry. Among these inscriptions were cartouches (royal inscriptions name) Khufu. Read the rest … TOMB: The first question is: Who? (Part 2)
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